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Hyperemia, Conjunctival


Conjunctival injection


Conjunctival hyperemia is a conjunctival reaction that appears as dilation and redness of the conjunctival vessels. The pattern of hyperemia often appears with the greatest redness at the fornices and fades moving toward the limbus.


The hyperemia occurs in the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is divided into bulbar, palpebral, and forniceal conjunctiva. Histologically, this is divided into the epithelium and substantia propria (stroma). The epithelium is a non-keratizing epithelium with goblet cells (Kanski and Bowling 2011). The substantia propria is vascularized with a superficial adenoid layer containing lymphoid tissue and a deeper fibrous layer with connective tissue (Kanski and Bowling 2011; Lindquist 2011). The conjunctival hyperemia occurs in this vascular substantia propria, and these conjunctival vessels arise from the palpebral and anterior ciliary arteries (Kanski and Bowling 2011; Lindquist 2011). Since the conjunctiva is...


  • Allergic Conjunctivitis
  • Conjunctival Injection
  • Fibrous Layer
  • Contact Lens Wearer
  • Conjunctival Hyperemia

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Correspondence to Ben Janson .

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© 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Janson, B. (2014). Hyperemia, Conjunctival. In: Schmidt-Erfurth, U., Kohnen, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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