Skip to main content

Chiasmal Disorders

  • Living reference work entry
  • First Online:
Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology

Synonyms

Lesions of the optic chiasm; Parasellar lesions; Suprasellar mass lesions

Definition

A chiasmal disorder defined as any lesion that causes a disruption in the optic chiasm.

Etiology

The majority of optic chiasmal lesions in adults are caused by compressive suprasellar or parasellar lesions, such as:

  1. 1.

    Pituitary adenomas.

  2. 2.

    Craniopharyngiomas.

  3. 3.

    Meningiomas.

  4. 4.

    Internal carotid suprasellar aneurysm.

  5. 5.

    Dysgerminoma and hypothalamic/optic chiasmal glioma in younger patients.

  6. 6.

    Other infrequent causes of chiasmal disorders are demyelination (chiasmal neuritis), metabolic, toxic, traumatic, ischemic, infiltrative, inflammatory, or infectious.

The anatomical location of the optic chiasm (superior in relation to the sellae and inferior to the third ventricle) often determines the affected visual fibers and the visual defects. For example, a prefixed chiasm over the tuberculum occurs in 9 %, the central body of the chiasm is directly above the pituitary in 80 % (leading to the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Institutional subscriptions

Further Reading

  • Brazis PW, Masdeu JC, Biller J (2012) Localization in clinical neurology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    Google Scholar 

  • Foroozan R (2003) Chiasmal syndromes. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 14(6):325–31

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gruppetta M, Mercieca C, Vassallo J (2012) Prevalence and incidence of pituitary adenomas: a population based study in Malta. Pituitary [Epub ahead of print]

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee AG, Brazis PW, Miller NR, Newman NJ (2005) Clinical pathways in neuro-ophthalmology: an evidence-based approach. Topical diagnosis of acquired optic nerve disorders. In: Miller NR, Newman NJ (eds) Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro ophthalmology, 6th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 228–229

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller NR, Newman NJ (eds) (2005) Walsh & Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology, 6th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadephia, PA, USA

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Nagham Al-Zubidi , Whitlow Bryan Thomas or Andrew G. Lee .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer Science Business Media, New York (outside the USA)

About this entry

Cite this entry

Al-Zubidi, N., Thomas, W.B., Lee, A.G. (2015). Chiasmal Disorders. In: Schmidt-Erfurth, U., Kohnen, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35951-4_522-1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35951-4_522-1

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-35951-4

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference MedicineReference Module Medicine

Publish with us

Policies and ethics