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Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fractures

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Malar complex fracture; Maxillary complex fracture; Orbito-zygomatico-maxillary fracture; Tetrapod fracture; Trimalar fracture; Tripod fracture; Zygomatic complex fracture


The most common zygomatico-maxillary complex (ZMC) fracture pattern involves fracture of the frontozygomatic suture (lateral orbital rim), the zygomatic arch, the lateral buttress (zygomatico-maxillary buttress), and the inferior orbital rim (Cummings 2005). The fractures through the lateral buttress and the inferior orbital rim are commonly connected by an anterior maxillary wall fracture. Although this represents the most common fracture pattern, significant variation exists. For example, the zygoma itself may be fractured into pieces and partial ZMC fractures, involving some, but not all of the fractures listed above, may occur (Figs. 1 and 2).

Fig. 1
figure 1

Important anatomic correlates in ZMC fractures.


  • Complex Fracture
  • Zygomatic Arch
  • Orbital Floor
  • Orbital Floor Fracture
  • Zygomatic Complex

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2


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Correspondence to Gary Joseph Lelli .

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© 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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Lelli, G.J., Liotta, D., Levine, B., Kacker, A. (2014). Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fractures. In: Schmidt-Erfurth, U., Kohnen, T. (eds) Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-35951-4

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