Carbohydrate Circular Dichroism
Circular dichroism (CD) is defined as the difference between the absorptivity of left- and right-circularly polarized light. Chiral molecules containing asymmetric carbon atoms have different optical activities for the two circularly polarized components, which results in characteristic CD spectra in the visible to vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region. Since CD is very sensitive to the chemical bonds and substituents (i.e., chromophores) surrounding asymmetric carbon atoms, CD spectroscopy is a powerful technique for analyzing the stereochemistry and conformation of organic compounds and biomolecules (Fasman 1996; Berova et al. 2000). Carbohydrates contain hydroxyl and acetal groups with high-energy electronic transitions below 190 nm, which is the short-wavelength limit of conventional CD spectrophotometers in aqueous solution. CD measurements have been extended into the VUV region below 190 nm by improvements to the...
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