Encyclopedia of Biophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Gordon Roberts, Anthony Watts, European Biophysical Societies

Absorbance Spectroscopy: Quality Assurance

  • Paul WormellEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_773-1
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Keywords

Absorbance Spectroscopy ASTM International American Society For Testing And Materials (ASTM) National Association Of Testing Authorities (NATA) Standards Australia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Synonyms

Definition

Modern spectrophotometers are usually accurate and reliable, but this should never be taken for granted, and there is a range of protocols that can be used to assess such parameters as wavelength accuracy (e.g., using holmium perchlorate solution or the sharp emission lines from a hydrogen or deuterium lamp), stray radiation, photometric accuracy (e.g., using potassium dichromate solution, noting the associated hazards), and baseline flatness. This is a routine requirement for an accredited testing laboratory, which may, for example, be required to comply with AS ISO/IEC 17025:2018, General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories (Standards Australia: AS ISO/IEC 17025:2018(2018)), and is a requirement of Good Laboratory Practice (OECD 1998). It may also be essential for a forensic testing laboratory, in which all aspects of the laboratory’s testing practice may attract intense scrutiny, and for any scientific application in which data reliability and measurement uncertainty must be ascertained. For example, the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) Australia requires accredited chemical testing authorities to “carry out regular, recorded calibration checks on all spectrophotometers or automated devices employing spectrophotometers or colorimeters.” These calibrations must include checks on wavelength accuracy, absorbance, linearity, stray light, and matching of cells. Calibrations must be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and/or relevant codes of practice listed below. Many spectrophotometers have software packages that allow a user to carry out a set of standard calibration checks and generate reports for diagnostic and quality assurance purposes. Manufacturers may also provide technical notes on calibration and validation of spectrophotometers and accessories and calibration standards to assist with this.

National and international codes of practice include the following standards, and others may be applicable in particular jurisdictions (AS refers to Australian Standard; ASTM refers to ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)):
  • AS 3753 recommended practice for chemical analysis by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry (Standards Australia: AS 3753-2001 (Reconfirmed) 28 October 2016 (2001))

  • ASTM E131 standard terminology relating to molecular spectroscopy (ASTM International: ASTM E131-10 (2015))

  • ASTM E169 standard practices for general techniques of ultraviolet-visible quantitative analysis (ASTM International: E169-16 (2016))

  • ASTM E275 standard practices for describing and measuring performance of ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectrophotometers (ASTM International: E275-08 (2013))

  • ASTM E925 standard practice for monitoring the calibration of ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometers whose spectral slit width does not exceed 2 nm (ASTM International: E925-09 (2014))

  • ASTM E958 standard practice for measuring practical spectral bandwidth of ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometers (ASTM International: E958-13 (2013))

  • ASTM E1421 standard practice for describing and measuring performance of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometers: level zero and level one tests (ASTM International: E1421-99 (2015))

In addition to any legal or regulatory requirements for testing laboratories, reliable analytical and research data require the spectroscopic instrumentation to perform to a known and acceptable standard.

Cross-References

References

  1. ASTM International: ASTM E131-10 (2015) Standard terminology relating to molecular spectroscopy. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM International: ASTM E1421-99 (2015) Standard practice for describing and measuring performance of Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometers: level zero and level one tests1. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM International: ASTM E169-16 (2016) Standard practices for general techniques of ultraviolet–visible quantitative analysis. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM International: ASTM E275-08 (2013) Standard practices for describing and measuring performance of ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectrophotometers. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  5. ASTM International: ASTM E925-09 (2014) Standard practice for monitoring the calibration of ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometers whose spectral slit width does not exceed 2 nm. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  6. ASTM International: ASTM E958-13 (2013) Standard practice for measuring practical spectral bandwidth of ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometers. ASTM International, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  7. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1998) OECD principles of good laboratory practice (as revised in 1997). OECD Environmental Health and Safety Publications, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. Standards Australia: AS 3753-2001 (Reconfirmed) 28 October 2016 (2001) Recommended practice for chemical analysis by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry, 2nd edn. Standards Australia, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  9. Standards Australia: AS ISO/IEC 17025:2018 (2018) General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, 3rd edn. Standards Australia, SydneyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Science and HealthWestern Sydney UniversityPenrithAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Alison Rodger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK