Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering

2015 Edition
| Editors: Michael Beer, Ioannis A. Kougioumtzoglou, Edoardo Patelli, Siu-Kui Au

Liquefaction: Countermeasures to Mitigate Risk

  • Rolando P. OrenseEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35344-4_19

Synonyms

Ground improvement; Liquefaction mitigation; Liquefaction prevention; Liquefaction remediation

Introduction

Past several earthquakes have vividly demonstrated the impact of soil liquefaction and the associated ground deformations to buildings, bridges, buried lifelines, and other civil infrastructure. To reduce the risk of damage to the structures, remediation measures are usually employed. In order to implement a successful remediation work for a target structure, a thorough understanding of the following are required: the liquefaction hazard at the site, the potential consequences of liquefaction for the structure, the performance requirements of the work, and the available construction materials and methods. Several alternative approaches can be taken if liquefaction poses as threat to existing or proposed structures. For existing structures, the choices are:
  1. (1)

    Retrofitting the structure and/or site to reduce the potential failure

     
  2. (2)

    Abandoning the structure if the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Andrus RD, Chung RM (1995) Ground improvement techniques for liquefaction remediation near existing lifelines. National Institute of Standards and Technology report NISTIR 5714, Gaithersburg, p 74Google Scholar
  2. Bowen HJ, Cubrinovski M (2008) Effective stress analysis of piles in liquefiable soil: a case study of a bridge foundation. Bull NZ Soc Earthq Eng 41(4):247―262Google Scholar
  3. Cooke HG, Mitchell JK(1999) Guide to remedial measures for liquefaction mitigation at existing highway bridge sites. Technical report MCEER-99-015, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo, p 176Google Scholar
  4. Cox BR, Griffiths SC(2010) Practical recommendations for evaluation and mitigation of soil liquefaction in Arkansas. Project report MBTC 3017, p 175Google Scholar
  5. Cubrinovski M, Haskell JJM, Bradley BA (2012) Analysis of piles in liquefying soils by the pseudo-static approach. In: Sakr MA, Ansal A (eds) Special topics in earthquake geotechnical engineering, vol 16, Geotechnical, geological and earthquake engineering. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 147―174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hamada M, Yasuda S, Isoyama R, Emoto K (1986) Study on liquefaction-induced permanent ground displacements. Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction, Tokai University, Shimizu, JapanGoogle Scholar
  7. Hausler EA, Sitar N (2001) Performance of soil improvement techniques in earthquakes. In: Fourth international conference on recent advances in geotechnical earthquake engineering and soil dynamics, San Diego, CA, Paper 10.15Google Scholar
  8. Hausmann MR (1990) Engineering principles of ground modification. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 632Google Scholar
  9. Iai S, Koizumi K (1986) Estimation of earthquake induced excess pore pressure for gravel drains. In: Proceedings, 7th Japan earthquake engineering symposium, Tokyo, Japan, pp 679―684Google Scholar
  10. Iai S, Ichii K, Li H, Morita T (1998) Effective stress analyses of port structures. Soils Found Special issue on Geotechnical Aspects of the January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu earthquake 2:97―114Google Scholar
  11. Idriss IM, Boulanger RW (2008) Soil liquefaction during earthquakes, vol MNO-12, Monograph series. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, OaklandGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishii H, Funahara H, Matsui H, Horikoshi K (2015) Effectiveness of liquefaction countermeasures in the 2011 M = 9 gigantic earthquake, and an innovative soil improvement method. Indian Geotech J 43(2):153―160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Japanese Geotechnical Society, JGS (1998) Remedial measures against soil liquefaction. A.A. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Kitazume M (2005) The sand compaction pile method. A. A. Balkema, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kitazume M, Terashi M (2015) The deep mixing method. CRC Press/Balkema, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  16. Maeda S, Nagao K, Tsujino S (2006) Shock wave densification method ― countermeasures against soil liquefaction by controlled blasting. Report of Satokogyo Engineering Research Institute, no. 31, pp 21―27 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Mitchell JK, Cooke HG, Schaeffer J (1998) Design considerations in ground improvement for seismic risk mitigation. In: Proceedings, geotechnical earthquake engineering and soil dynamics III, ASCE geotechnical publication no. 75, vol 1, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 580―613Google Scholar
  18. Munfakh GA, AbramsonLW, Barksdale RD, Juran I(1987) In situ ground reinforcement. In: Soil improvement ― a ten year update. ASCE geotechnical special publication, vol 12. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp 1―17Google Scholar
  19. Narin Court W, Mitchell JK (1994) Explosive compaction: densification of loose, saturated cohesionless soils by blasting, Geotechnical engineering report UCB/GT/94-03. University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  20. Pestana JM, Hunt CE, Goughnour RR (1997) FEQDrain: a finite element computer program for the analysis of the earthquake generation and dissipation of pore water pressure in layered sand deposits with vertical drains. Report no. EERC 97―17. Earthquake Engineering Research Center, UC-BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  21. Port and Harbour Research Institute, PHRI (1997) Handbook on liquefaction remediation of reclaimed land. A.A. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  22. Schaefer V (ed) (1997) Ground improvement, ground reinforcement, ground treatment: developments 1987―1997. ASCE geotechnical special publication, vol 69. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, p 618Google Scholar
  23. Seed HB, Booker JR (1977) Stabilization of potentially liquefiable sand deposits using gravel drains. J Geotech Eng Div ASCE 103(GT7):757―768Google Scholar
  24. Seed RB, Cetin KO, Moss RES, Kammerer A, Wu J, Pestana J, Riemer M, Sancio RB, Bray JD, Kayen RE, Faris A (2003) Recent advances in soil liquefaction engineering: a unified and consistent framework. Geotechnical report no. UCB/EERC-2003/06. Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  25. Sondermann W, Wehr W (2004) Chapter 2: deep vibro techniques. In: Moseley MP, Kirsch K (eds) Ground improvement 2nd edn. Spon Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. Welsh JP (1992) Grouting techniques for excavation support. Excavation Support for the Urban Infrastructure. ASCE, New York, pp 240―261Google Scholar
  27. Xanthakos PP, Abramson LW, Bruce DA (1994) Ground control and improvement. Wiley, New York, p 910Google Scholar
  28. Yasuda S, Ishihara K, Harada K, Shinkawa N (1996) Effect of soil improvement on ground subsidence due to liquefaction. Spec Issue Soils Found 99―107Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand