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Bioremediation

  • Ronald L. Crawford
  • Eugene Rosenberg
Reference work entry

Abstract

Bioremediation is the use of biological systems, usually microorganisms, to treat polluted soils and water. Optimization of bioremediation processes generally requires the addition of inorganic materials (biostimulation), such as utilizable sources of nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen. Generally, appropriate microorganisms are present in the polluted material and do not have to be added. However, occasionally natural or genetically engineered microbes may need to be added (bioaugmentation). Treatments can be either ex situ or in situ. The technology can involve aerobic and/or anaerobic bioreactors, biofiltration, air sparging, bioventing, composting, landfarming, and biopiles. Intrinsic remediation refers to the combined effects of all natural processes in contaminated environments that reduce the mobility, mass, and risks of pollutants. The limitations of bioremediation are discussed, including the treatment of petroleum pollution in the sea.

Keywords

Vadose Zone Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Soil Vapor Extraction Soil Vapor Extraction Catalytic Incinerator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Bioventing

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Phytoremediation

  1. The phytoremediation bibliography http://www.rtdf.org/phytodoc.htm: >1,000 citations on phytoremediation and related topics

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald L. Crawford
    • 1
  • Eugene Rosenberg
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Biotechnology InstituteUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Microbiology and BiotechnologyTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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