Public Service Collections and Biological Resource Centers of Microorganisms
- 4.4k Downloads
From its very beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century, microbiology as a scientific discipline recognized the need to preserve microbial resources for scientific studies and as reference material by the establishment of research collections. To better serve the scientific public with the increasing number of strains of medical importance and physiological novelty, collections were established with the specific remit to support the research and user communities, the public service collections. A few of these early collections that continued to increase their holdings over the years and gained international recognition still exist today (e.g., ATCC, USA, CBS, the Netherlands; CIP, France (see Abbreviations). The number of research collections that were created during the past 140 years is unknown as is the total number of those collections that disappeared because of insecure funding and little recognition of their scientific importance. This chapter will highlight the importance of public service collections as the guardians of valuable microbial resources and as one of the cornerstones of research. It will explain the need for collections to improve all aspects of their mandate, namely, accessioning, long-term preservation and provision of microbial strains and their derivatives in order to meet the demands of their users in the era of the knowledge-based bio-economy.
KeywordsGlobal Biodiversity Information Facility Microbial Resource Public Collection Biological Resource Center Microbial Collection
American Type Culture Collection; Manassas; VA, USA.
Biotech culture collection, Bangkok, Thailand.
Belgian Co-Ordinated Collections of Micro-Organisms, Laboratorium voor Microbiologie, University Gent, Belgium.
Brazilian Cyanobacteria Collection, University Sao Paulo, Brazil.
In the context of this chapter defined as a microbial Biological Resource Center (sensu OECD), a CC running under a defined quality management system which yet needs to be agreed upon by the stakeholders.
CAB International, Egham, UK
Convention on Biological Diversity (http://www.cbd.int/), a global agreement addressing all aspects of biological diversity: genetic resources, species, and ecosystems. Their protection, sustainable use and access to including benefit sharing of the advantages arising from their use.
Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
In the context of this chapter defined as a microbial Culture Collection, a general term of a facility accessioning and maintaining microbial resources (prokaryotes, fungi, yeast), DNA, plasmids, phages, and material derived therefrom. Public Culture Collections provide this material to users. For a comprehensive list of abbreviations see WDCM and http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/collections.html.
Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, UK.
Moroccan Coordinated Collections of Micro-organisms, Morocco.
Culture Collection of Marine Phytoplankton, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine USA.
Chinese Center for Type Cultures Collections, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.
Culture Collection of the University of Göteborg, Institute of Clinical Bacteriology, Immunology, and Virology, Göteborg, Sweden.
Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo, Valencia, Spain.
China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
Collection of the Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Canadian Phycological Culture Center (formerly known as UTCC), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany.
European Biological Resource Centers Network (http://www.ebrcn.net), a EU-funded network of 15 European culture collections of microorganisms and cell cultures (2001–2004).
European Consortium of Microbial Resource Centers (http://www.embarc.eu/) networking the BCCM™/LMG, Belgium
Germany and two French research collections INRA-CIRM-BP in Tours and CIRM-BIA, Rennes), aiming to improve, coordinate and validate microbial resource center (MRC) delivery to European and International researchers from both public and private sectors (Box 11.4).
European Network of Biodiversity Information (www.enbi.org), an EU funded project established to include all European national nodes of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). (2003–2006).
European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures a strategic instrument to develop the scientific integration of Europe and to strengthen its international outreach (http://ec.europa.eu/research/infrastructures/index_en.cfm?pg=esfri)
Federation of European Microbiological Societies (http://www.fems-microbiology.org).
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (http://www.gbif.org/), an international government-initiated and funded initiative focused on making biodiversity data free and openly available online.
Global Biological Resource Center Network (http://www.gbrcn.org), a project following work in the OECD to improve access to high quality biological resources and information to support research and biotechnology as a platform for a knowledge-based bio-economy.
- INRA CIRM-BIA
Center International de Ressources Microbiennes - Bacteries d'Interet Alimentaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Rennes, France.
- INRA CIRM-BP
Center International de Ressources Microbiennes – Bacteries Pathogenes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Nouzilly, France.
Korean Agricultural Culture Collection, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon, Republic of Korea.
The Belgian Consortium of Collections of Microorganisms (BCCM™), represented by the Universiteit Gent, Belgium.
Microbial Information Network Europe, an EU-funded network of European culture collections, running between 1986–1989 and 1990–1993.
Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure (http://www.mirri.org/), a pan- European distributed research infrastructure established on the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) road map with the goal to improve access to the microbial resources and services that are needed to accelerate research and discovery processes.
Micro-Organisms Sustainable use and Access regulation International Code of Conduct, an EU-funded project (1997–1999), a tool to support the implementation of CBD at the microbial level, in accordance with other relevant rules of international and national laws.
Microtheca do Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal.
Biological Resource Center, National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Chiba Pref., Japan.
National Collection of Agricultural and Industrial Microorganisms, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest, Hungary.
Netherlands Culture Collection of Bacteria, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria, National Collections of Industrial, Food and Marine Bacteria, Aberdeen, UK.
National Collection of Type Cultures, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, UK.
Northern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, US Department of Agriculture, Peoria, Illinois, USA.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (http://www.oecd.org/).
Culture Collection of Algae Sammlung von Algenkulturen, University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
The Belgian Consortium of Collections of Microorganisms (BCCM™), Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
World Data Center of Microorganisms, an activity of the WFCC, providing an electronic gateway to databases on microbes and cell lines and resources on biodiversity, molecular biology and genomes (see Box 11.3).
We wish to thank all contributing collections for sharing their data with us. Special thanks go to Dunja Martin, Hanover, for critically reading and for improving this chapter.
This chapter has been prepared under the EMbaRC project (EU Seventh Framework Programme Research Infrastructures (INFRA-2008-18.104.22.168: Biological Resources Centers (BRCs) for microorganisms (Grant agreement number: FP7- 228310) and for the GBRCN Demonstration Project, financed by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education.
- Anon (2010) The WFCC Guidelines for the establishment and operation of culture collections. http://www.wfcc.info/guideline.html. Accessed 03 July 2011
- CABRI (2002) Common Access to Biological Resources and Information http//:www.cabri.org
- Canhos VP, Sette LD, Cupolillo E, Tigano MS, Vazoller RF (2007) O papel da Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia no suporte à consolidação da Rede Brasileira de Coleções de Culturas de Microrganismos. Microbiologia in foco 2:40–48Google Scholar
- Canhos VP, Ferraz de Souza RD, Ávila JPC (2009) Avanços na implementação da Rede Brasileira de Centros de Recursos Biológicos. Microbiologia in foco 9:46–47Google Scholar
- CBD Nagoya Protocol (2011) https://www.cbd.int/abs/
- Day JD, Stacey G (eds) (2007) Cryopreservation and freeze-drying protocols. In: Series: methods in molecular biology, 368, 2nd edn. Humana Press, ISBN 1-58829-377-7Google Scholar
- Fritze D (2005) Digital imaging of prokaryotes for taxonomic purposes. In: Häuser CL, Steiner A, Holstein J, Scoble MJ (eds) Digital imaging of biological type specimens. A manual of best practice. Results from a study of the european network for biodiversity information. Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, viii + 304 pp, ISBN 3-00-017240-8, pp 153–171Google Scholar
- Fritze D (2010) A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections’ Organisation. Int J Commons 4:507–527Google Scholar
- Fry RM (1966) Freezing and drying of bacteria. In: Meryman HT (ed) Cryobiology. Academic, London/New York, pp 665–696Google Scholar
- Hippe H (1991) Maintenance of methanogenic bacteria. In: Kirsop BE, Doyle A (eds) Maintenance of microorganisms and cultures cells, 2nd edn. Academic, London, pp 101–113Google Scholar
- Kirsop BE, Doyle A (eds) (1991) Maintenance of microorganisms and cultured cells: a manual of laboratory methods. Academic, London, 308 ppGoogle Scholar
- Konstantinidis K, Stackebrandt E (2011) Defining taxonomic ranks. In: Rosenberg E, DeLong EF, Thompson F, Lory S, Stackebrandt E (eds) The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria, 4th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Morichi T (1970) Nature and action of protective solutes in freeze-drying of bacteria. In: Iizuka H, Hasegawa T (eds) Culture collections of microorganisms. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 351–361Google Scholar
- Morris GJ (1981) Cryopreservation: an introduction to cryopreservation in culture collections. Culture Centre of Algae and Protozoa, CumbriaGoogle Scholar
- OECD (2001) Biological resource centres – underpinning the future of life sciences and biotechnology. (http://oecdpublications.gfi-nb.com/cgi-bin/oecdbookshop.storefront)
- OECD (2007) Best practice guidelines for biological resource centres (Online), http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/7/13/GGTSPU-styx2.bba.de-7664-3281383-DAT/38777417.pdf Accessed 20 Jan 2011
- OECD (2011) The bio-economy to 2030: designing a policy agenda. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), ParisGoogle Scholar
- Smibert RM, Krieg NR (1994) Phenotypic characterization. In: Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Wood WA, Krieg NR (eds) Methods for general and molecular bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 607–655Google Scholar
- Smith D, Rohde C (2007) Biological resource centres compliance with law. Society for Microbiology, UK. http://www.sgm.ac.uk/pubs/micro_today/pdf/0299brc.pdf
- Smith D, Rohde C (2008) Safety in microbiology. Laboratory Manager Issue, vol 125. Croner, UK, pp 4–6Google Scholar
- Smith D, Ryan MJ, Day JG (2001) The UKNCC biological resource: properties, maintenance and management. UKNCC Secretariat, Egham. ISBN 0954028503Google Scholar
- Smith D, Ryan MJ, Stackebrandt E (2008) The ex situ conservation of microorganisms: aiming at a certified quality management. In: Doelle HW, DaSilva EJ (eds) Biotechnology. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss, Oxford, UK. http://wwweolss.net
- Stackebrandt E, Frederiksen W, Garrity GM, Grimont PAD, Kämpfer P, Maiden MCJ, Nesme X, Rossello-Mora R, Swings J, Trüper HG, Vauterin L, Ward AC, Whitman WB (2002) Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1043–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stromberg PM, Dedeurwaerdere T, Pascual U (2012) The contribution of public networks to knowledge accumulation: ex situ collections in microbial research (in press)Google Scholar
- Suggett A (1975) Water-carbohydrate interactions. In: Duckworth RB (ed) Water relations of food. Food Science and Technology, a series of monographs. Academic Press, London, pp 573–586Google Scholar