The Family Dietziaceae

  • Rüdiger Pukall
Reference work entry


Members of Dietziaceae, actinomycetes characterized by the presence of mycolic acids, especially high molecular weight 3-hydroxy fatty acids substituted in the two positions with a long alkyl branch, have previously been classified in the suborder Corynebacterinae. The suborder Corynebacterinae was originally placed in the order Actinomycetales. According to Bergey’s road map of the Actinobacteria, the six families Corynebacteriaeceae, Tsukumarellaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardiaceae, Segniliparaceae, and Dietziaceae were removed from the order Actinomycetales and assigned to the order Corynebacterales. The family Dietziaceae comprises solely the genus Dietzia which consists of 13 species with validly published names. The morphology and physiology of Dietzia species is similar to that of Rhodococcus equi, which in the past often led to misidentification of Dietzia strains by traditional identification techniques. Nowadays molecular based methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing can be used to discriminate Dietzia strains from the type strain of Rhodococcus equi. This is of ecological significance, as members of Dietzia have been isolated from diverse environments including clinical specimens, which led to conclusion that Dietzia species may act as an opportunistic pathogen.


Type Strain Cellular Fatty Acid Cellular Fatty Acid Profile Membrane Filter Method Dietzia Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Al-Awadhi H, Al-Mailem D, Dashti N, Khanafer M, Radwan S (2012) Indigenous hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterioflora in oil-polluted habitats in Kuwait, two decades after the greatest man-made oil spill. Arch Microbiol 194:689–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anand TP, Bhat AW, Shouche YS, Roy U, Siddharth J, Sarma SP (2006) Antimicrobial activity of marine bacteria associated with sponges from the waters off the coast of South East India. Microbiol Res 161:252–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azanza MP, Azanza RV, Vargas VM, Hedreyda CT (2006) Bacterial endosymbionts of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum. Microb Ecol 52:756–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aziz RK, Bartels D, Best AA, DeJongh M, Disz T, Edwards RA, Formsma K, Gerdes S, Glass EM, Kubal M, Meyer F, Olsen GJ, Olson R, Osterman AL, Overbeek RA, McNeil LK, Paarmann D, Paczian T, Parrello B, Pusch GD, Reich C, Stevens R, Vassieva O, Vonstein V, Wilke A, Zagnitko O (2008) The RAST Server: rapid annotations using subsystems technology. BMC Genomics 9:75PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biddle JF, House CH, Brenchley JE (2005) Microbial stratification in deeply buried marine sediment reflects changes in sulfate/methane profiles. Geobiology 3:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen S, Shao Z (2009) Isolation and diversity analysis of arsenite-resistant bacteria in communities enriched from deep-sea sediments of the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge. Extremophiles 13:39–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dalby AB, Frank DN, St Amand AL, Bendele AM, Pace NR (2006) Culture-independent analysis of indomethacin-induced alterations in the rat gastrointestinal microbiota. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:6707–6715PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dewhirst FE, Chen T, Izard J, Paster BJ, Tanner AC, Yu WH, Lakshmanan A, Wade WG (2010) The human oral microbiome. J Bacteriol 192:5002–50017PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diep AL, Lang JM, Darling AE, Eisen JA, Coil DA (2013) Draft genome sequence of Dietzia sp. strain UCD-THP (Phylum Actinobacteria). Genome Announc 1(3):e001917–13Google Scholar
  10. Dinakaran V, John L, Rathinavel A, Gunasekaran P, Rajendhran J (2012) Prevalence of bacteria in the circulation of cardiovascular disease patients, Madurai, India. Heart Lung Circ 21:281–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duckworth AW, Grant S, Grant WD, Jones BE, Meijer D (1998) Dietzia natronolimnaios sp. nov., a new member of the genus Dietzia isolated from an east African soda lake. Extremophiles 2:359–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elliott DR, Wilson M, Buckley CM, Spratt DA (2006) Aggregative behavior of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:5211–5217PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feazel LM, Baumgartner LK, Peterson KL, Frank DN, Harris JK, Pace NR (2009) Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:16393–16399PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Freitas DB, Lima-Bittencourt CI, Reis MP, Costa PS, Assis PS, Chartone-Souza E, Nascimento AM (2008) Molecular characterization of early colonizer bacteria from wastes in a steel plant. Lett Appl Microbiol 47:241–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghosh S, Osman S, Vaishampayan P, Venkateswaran K (2010) Recurrent isolation of extremotolerant bacteria from the clean room where Phoenix spacecraft components were assembled. Astrobiology 10:325–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gong XC, Liu ZS, Guo P, Chi CQ, Chen J, Wang XB, Tang YQ, Wu XL, Liu CZ (2012) Bacteria in crude oil survived autoclaving and stimulated differentially by exogenous bacteria. PLoS One 7:e40842PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. He L, Li W, Huang Y, Wang LM, Liu ZH, Lanoot BJ, Vancanneyt M, Swings J (2005) Streptomyces jietaisiensis sp. nov., isolated from soil in northern China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1939–1944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herranen M, Kariluoto S, Edelmann M, Piironen V, Ahvenniemi K, Iivonen V, Salovaara H, Korhola M (2010) Isolation and characterization of folate-producing bacteria from oat bran and rye flakes. Int J Food Microbiol 142:277–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirvonen JJ, Lepistö I, Mero S, Kaukoranta SS (2012) First isolation of Dietzia cinnamea from a dog bite wound in an adult patient. J Clin Microbiol 50:4163–4165PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Inagaki F, Suzuki M, Takai K, Oida H, Sakamoto T, Aoki K, Nealson KH, Horikoshi K (2003) Microbial communities associated with geological horizons in coastal subseafloor sediments from the sea of Okhotsk. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:7224–7235PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jin Q, Hu Z, Jin Z, Qiu L, Zhong W, Pan Z (2012) Biodegradation of aniline in an alkaline environment by a novel strain of the halophilic bacterium, Dietzia natronolimnaea JQ-AN. Bioresour Technol 117:148–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones AL, Koerner RJ, Natarajan S, Perry JD, Goodfellow M (2008) Dietzia papillomatosis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the skin of an immunocompetent patient with confluent and reticulated papillomatosis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:68–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Joshi AA, Kanekar PP, Kelkar AS, Shouche YS, Vani AA, Borgave SB, Sarnaik SS (2008) Cultivable bacterial diversity of alkaline Lonar lake, India. Microb Ecol 55:163–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kämpfer P, Langer S, Martin E, Jäckel U, Busse HJ (2010) Dietzia aerolata sp. nov., isolated from the air of a duck barn, and emended description of the genus Dietzia Rainey et al. 1995. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:393–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kämpfer P, Falsen E, Frischmann A, Busse HJ (2012) Dietzia aurantiaca sp. nov., isolated from a human clinical specimen. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:484–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Katayama T, Tanaka M, Moriizumi J, Nakamura T, Brouchkov A, Douglas TA, Fukuda M, Tomita F, Asano K (2007) Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria preserved in a permafrost ice wedge for 25,000 years. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:2360–2363PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khodaiyan F, Razavi SH, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mousavi SM (2007) Optimization of canthaxanthin production by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 using response surface methodology. Pak J Biol Sci 110:2544–2552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim J, Roh SW, Choi JH, Jung MJ, Nam YD, Kim MS, Park EJ, Shin KS, Bae JW (2011a) Dietzia alimentaria sp. nov., isolated from a traditional Korean food. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:2254–2258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim J, Roh SW, Bae JW (2011b) Draft genome sequence of Dietzia alimentaria 72 T, belonging to the family Dietziaceae, isolated from a traditional Korean food. J Bacteriol 193:6791PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim TU, Cho SH, Han JH, Shin YM, Lee HB, Kim SB (2012) Diversity and physiological properties of root endophytic actinobacteria in native herbaceous plants of Korea. J Microbiol 50:50–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kleinsteuber S, Riis V, Fetzer I, Harms H, Müller S (2006) Population dynamics within a microbial consortium during growth on diesel fuel in saline environments. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:3531–3542PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koerner RJ, Goodfellow M, Jones AL (2009) The genus Dietzia: a new home for some known and emerging opportunist pathogens. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 55:296–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li J, Zhao GZ, Zhang YQ, Klenk HP, Pukall R, Qin S, Xu LH, Li w J (2008) Dietzia schimae sp. nov. and Dietzia cercidiphylli sp. nov., from surface-sterilized plant tissues. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:2549–2554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li J, Chen C, Zhao GZ, Klenk HP, Pukall R, Zhang YQ, Tang SK, Li WJ (2009) Description of Dietzia lutea sp. nov., isolated from a desert soil in Egypt. Syst Appl Microbiol 32:118–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lu H, Fujimura R, Sato Y, Nanba K, Kamijo T, Ohta H (2008) Characterization of Herbaspirillum- and Limnobacter-related strains isolated from young volcanic deposits in Miyake-Jima island, Japan. Microbes Environ 23:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ludwig W, Euzeby J, Schumann P, Busse HJ, Trujillo ME, Kämpfer P, Whitman WB (2012) Road map of the phylum Actinobacteria. In: Goodfellow M, Kämpfer P, Busse HJ, Trujillo ME, Suzuki K, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 5. Springer, New York, pp 1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Markowitz VM, Ivanova NN, Chen IMA, Chu K, Kyrpides NC (2009) IMG ER: a system for microbial genome annotation expert review and curation. Bioinformatics 25:2271–2278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mathe I, Benedek T, Tancsics A, Palatinszky M, Lanyi S, Marialigeti K (2012) Diversity, activity, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance of Bacteria from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils located in Harghita county (Romania). Int Biodeter Biodegr 73:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mayilraj S, Suresh K, Kroppenstedt RM, Saini HS (2006) Dietzia kunjamensis sp. nov., isolated from the Indian Himalayas. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1667–1671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McGarvey JA, Miller WG, Sanchez S, Stanker L (2004) Identification of bacterial populations in dairy wastewaters by use of 16S rRNA gene sequences and other genetic markers. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4267–4275PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moissl-Eichinger C, Rettberg P, Pukall R (2012) The first collection of spacecraft-associated microorganisms: a public source for extremotolerant microorganisms from spacecraft assembly clean rooms. Astrobiology 12:1024–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Munson MA, Pitt-Ford T, Chong B, Weightman A, Wade WG (2002) Molecular and cultural analysis of the microflora associated with endodontic infections. J Dent Res 81:761–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nesterenko OA, Nogina TM, Kasumova SA, Kvasnikov EI, Batrakov SG (1982) Rhodococcus luteus nom. nov. and Rhodococcus maris nom. nov. Int J Bacteriol 32:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Niwa H, Lasker BA, Hinrikson HP, Franzen CG, Steigerwalt AG, Whitney AM, Brown JM (2012) Characterization of human clinical isolates of Dietzia species previously misidentified as Rhodococcus equi. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:811–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Overbeek R, Begley T, Butler RM, Choudhuri JV, Chuang HY, Cohoon M, de Crécy-Lagard V, Diaz N, Disz T, Edwards R, Fonstein M, Frank ED, Gerdes S, Glass EM, Goesmann A, Hanson A, Iwata-Reuyl D, Jensen R, Jamshidi N, Krause L, Kubal M, Larsen N, Linke B, McHardy AC, Meyer F, Neuweger H, Olsen G, Olson R, Osterman A, Portnoy V, Pusch GD, Rodionov DA, Rückert C, Steiner J, Stevens R, Thiele I, Vassieva O, Ye Y, Zagnitko O, Vonstein V (2005) The subsystems approach to genome annotation and its use in the project to annotate 1000 genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 33:5691–5702PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pidoux O, Argenson JN, Jacomo V, Drancourt M (2001) Molecular identification of a Dietzia maris hip prosthesis infection isolate. J Clin Microbiol 39:2634–2636PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pilares L, Agüero J, Vázquez-Boland JA, Martínez-Martínez L, Navas J (2010) Identification of atypical Rhodococcus-like clinical isolates as Dietzia spp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 48:1904–1907PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Procópio L, Alvarez VM, Jurelevicius DA, Hansen L, Sørensen SJ, Cardoso JS, Pádula M, Leitão AC, Seldin L, van Elsas JD (2012) Insight from the draft genome of Dietzia cinnamea P4 reveals mechanisms of survival in complex tropical soil habitats and biotechnology potential. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 101:289–302PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raats D, Offek M, Minz D, Halpern M (2011) Molecular analysis of bacterial communities in raw cow milk and the impact of refrigeration on its structure and dynamics. Food Microbiol 28:465–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rainey FA, Klatte S, Kroppenstedt RM, Stackebrandt E (1995) Dietzia, a new genus including Dietzia maris comb. nov., formerly Rhodococcus maris. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:32–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rainey FA, Ward-Rainey NL, Stackebrandt E (1997) Proposal for a new hierarchic classification system, Actinobacteria classis nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:479–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rammer P, Calum H, Moser C, Björnsdóttir MK, Smedegaard H, Høiby N, Bjarnsholt T (2013) Dietzia papillomatosis Bacteremia. J Clin Microbiol 51:1977–1978PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ramos-Padrón E, Bordenave S, Lin S, Bhaskar IM, Dong X, Sensen CW, Fournier J, Voordouw G, Gieg LM (2011) Carbon and sulfur cycling by microbial communities in a gypsum-treated oil sands tailings pond. Environ Sci Technol 45:439–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rotaru C, Woodard TL, Choi S, Nevin KP (2012) Spatial heterogeneity of bacterial communities in sediments from an infiltration basin receiving highway runoff. Microb Ecol 64:461–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ruckmani A, Chakrabarti T (2011) Analysis of bacterial community composition of a spring water from the Western Ghats, India using culture dependent and molecular approaches. Curr Microbiol 62:7–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rusznyák A, Vladár P, Szabó G, Márialigeti K, Borsodi AK (2008) Phylogenetic and metabolic bacterial diversity of Phragmites australis periphyton communities in two Hungarian soda ponds. Extremophiles 12:763–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shirling EB, Gottlieb D (1966) Methods for characterization of Streptomyces species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 16:313–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sun W, Peng C, Zhao Y, Li Z (2012) Functional gene-guided discovery of type II polyketides from culturable actinomycetes associated with soft coral Scleronephthya sp. PLoS One 7:e42847PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Takeishi H, Anzai H, Urai M, Aizawa T, Wada N, Iwabuchi N, Sunairi M, Nakajima M (2006) Xylanolytic and alkaliphilic Dietzia sp. isolated from larvae of the Japanese horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. Nippon Hosenkin Gakkaishi 20:49–54Google Scholar
  60. Tiago I, Chung AP, Veríssimo A (2004) Bacterial diversity in a nonsaline alkaline environment: heterotrophic aerobic populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7378–7387PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ueda S, Fujiwara N, Naka T, Sakaguchi I, Ozeki Y, Yano I, Kasama T, Kobayashi K (2001) Structure-activity relationship of mycoloyl glycolipids derived from Rhodococcus sp. 4306. Microb Pathog 30:91–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Verdier-Metz I, Gagne G, Bornes S, Monsallier F, Veisseire P, Delbès-Paus C, Montel MC (2012) Cow teat skin, a potential source of diverse microbial populations for cheese production. Appl Environ Microbiol 78:326–333PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. von der Weid I, Marques JM, Cunha CD, Lippi RK, Dos Santos SC, Rosado AS, Lins U, Seldin L (2007) Identification and biodegradation potential of a novel strain of Dietzia cinnamea isolated from a petroleum-contaminated tropical soil. Syst Appl Microbiol 30:331–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yamamura H, Lisdiyanti P, Ridwan R, Ratnakomala S, Sarawati R, Lestari Y, Triana E, Kartina G, Widyastuti Y, Ando K (2010) Dietzia timorensis sp. nov., isolated from soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:451–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yarza P, Ludwig W, Euzéby J, Amann R, Schleifer KH, Glöckner FO, Rosselló-Móra R (2010) Update of the All-Species Living Tree Project based on 16S and 23S rRNA sequence analyses. Syst Appl Microbiol 33:291–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yassin AF, Hupfer H, Schaal KP (2006) Dietzia cinnamea sp. nov., a novel species isolated from a perianal swab of a patient with a bone marrow transplant. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:641–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yumoto I, Nakamura A, Iwata H, Kojima K, Kusumoto K, Nodasaka Y, Matsuyama H (2002) Dietzia psychralcaliphila sp. nov., a novel, facultatively psychrophilic alkaliphile that grows on hydrocarbons. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhi X-Y, Li W-J, Stackebrandt E (2009) An update of the structure and 16S rRNA gene sequence-based definition of higher ranks of the class Actinobacteria, with the proposal of two new suborders and four new families and emended descriptions of the existing higher taxa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:589–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zucchi TD, Prado SS, Cônsoli FL (2012) The gastric caeca of pentatomids as a house for actinomycetes. BMC Microbiol 12:101PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell CulturesBraunschweigGermany

Personalised recommendations