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Pelagic Oxygen Minimum Zone Microbial Communities

  • Osvaldo Ulloa
  • Jody J. Wright
  • Lucy Belmar
  • Steven J. Hallam

Abstract

Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are oxygen-starved regions of the ocean harboring diverse microbial communities that drive biogeochemical processes of global significance, particularly those associated with the nitrogen cycle, with resulting impacts on marine nutrient cycles and the climate system. OMZs appear to be expanding and intensifying due to global climate change. Actual dissolved oxygen concentrations vary among extant OMZs, with some of them being totally anoxic and dominated by anaerobic metabolic processes, others presenting no geochemical signs of anaerobic metabolisms. Despite these overt phenotypic differences, culture-independent molecular studies have identified recurring microbial community composition patterns within OMZs consistent with redox-driven niche partitioning. While the majority of molecular studies have been based on individual marker genes, more recent studies have incorporated community genomic and transcriptomic data sets. Here, we highlight dominant trends emerging from these studies with emphasis on key taxonomic groups implicated in nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon transformations within OMZs.

Keywords

Anammox Bacterium Oxygen Minimum Zone Ammonia Monooxygenase Marine Group Cariaco Basin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter was prepared while the lead author (O.Ulloa) was on sabbatical at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, supported by the Life Sciences Institute Visiting Scholar Award, the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies International Visiting Research Scholar Award, and a gift from the Agouron Institute.

This work was performed under the auspices of the Agouron Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the FONDAP Program of the Chilean National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. J. J. Wright was supported by NSERC. L. Belmar was supported by CONICYT.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osvaldo Ulloa
    • 1
  • Jody J. Wright
    • 2
  • Lucy Belmar
    • 3
  • Steven J. Hallam
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de OceanografíaUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of British Columbia, Life Sciences InstituteVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Departamento de Oceanografía and Programa de Postgrados en OceanografíaUniversidad de ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  4. 4.Graduate Program in BioinformaticsUniversity of British Columbia, Life Sciences InstituteVancouverCanada

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