Advertisement

The Family Entomoplasmataceae

  • Gail E. Gasparich
Reference work entry

Abstract

The Entomoplasmataceae is a family within the class Mollicutes and the order Entomoplasmatales with two genera, Entomoplasma and Mesoplasma. Originally, many of the strains now within the Entomoplasmataceae were designated as belonging to the genus Mycoplasma or the genus Acholeplasma based on morphological, biological, and metabolic characteristics. In 1993, Tully and colleagues proposed a major revision to the taxonomic classification in which the Order Entomoplasmatales was divided into two families based on cell shape: Entomoplasmatacea for nonhelical bacteria and the Spiroplasmataceae for helical bacteria. The Entomoplasmatacea family was then divided into two genera based on sterol requirement: Entomoplasma for those that required sterol and Mesoplasma for those that did not require sterol, but were able to grow in serum-free medium supplemented with polyoxyethylene sorbitan (PES – normally 0.04 % Tween 80) (Tully et al. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:378–385, 1993). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence consistently showed that the Entomoplasmataceae is a sister clade to, and appears to be derived from, the Spiroplasmatacea lineage and that the genera are distinct phylogenetically. Phylogenetic analyses also clearly show that the two genera do not form distinct clades but are intermixed. For this reason, it is clear that the requirement for sterol is not a characteristic that can be used to distinguish the two genera and thus, it has been proposed that the two genera be combined under the Entomoplasma genus designation (Johansson K-E, Pettersson B (2002) Taxonomy of Mollicutes. In: Razin S, Herrman R (eds) Molecular biology and pathogenicity of mycoplasmas. Kluwer, London, pp 1–29; Gasparich et al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:893–891, 2004). Currently, there are six Entomoplasma species and eleven Mesoplasma species formally described. They have been isolated from arthropod hosts or plant surfaces (most likely deposited by arthropod hosts) and have not been found to be pathogenic to either host. Species from both genera appear as nonhelical, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccoid cells of various sizes under dark-field microscopic examination, were able to be filtered through 220-nm filters, lacked a cell wall (and thus are resistant to penicillin), and all were chemo-organotropic with the ability to ferment glucose using a PEP-dependent carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. There was variable ability to hydrolyze arginine and none were able to hydrolyze urea. The genome size ranged from 613 to 1,030 kbp, the G+C content ranged from 26.4 to 34.1 mol%, and the growth temperature range was from 10 °C to 37 °C with the common optimal growth temperature being 30 °C. The Entomoplasmataceae family as a whole is understudied with little information available for most species beyond the original description.

Keywords

Plant Surface Insect Host gyrB Gene Mycoplasma Hominis Arthropod Host 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bonnet F, Saillard C, Vignault JC, Garnier M, Carle P, Bové JM, Rose DL, Tully JG, Whitcomb RF (1991) Acholeplasma seiffertii ap. nov., a mollicute from plant surfaces. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bové JM, Whitcomb RF, McCoy RE (1983) Culture techniques for spiroplasmas from plants. Methods Mycoplasmol 2:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown DR, Bradbury JM, Whitcomb RF (2011a) Family I. Entomoplasmataceae Tully, Bové, Laigret and Whitcomb 1993, 380VP. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Pastor BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, p 645Google Scholar
  4. Brown DR, Bradbury JM, Whitcomb RF (2011b) Genus I. Entomoplasma Tully, Bové, Laigret and Whitcomb 1993, 379VP. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Pastor BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 646–649Google Scholar
  5. Brown DR, Bradbury JM, Whitcomb RF (2011c) Genus II. Mesoplasma Tully, Bové, Laigret and Whitcomb 1993, 380VP. In: Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Pastor BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 649–653Google Scholar
  6. Clark TB (1982) Spiroplasmas: diversity of arthropod reservoirs and host-parasite relationships. Science 217:57–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark TB, Tully JG, Rose DL, Henegar R, Whitcomb RF (1986) Acholeplasmas and similar nonsterol-requiring mollicutes from insects: missing link in microbial ecology. Curr Microbiol 13:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davis RE, Worley JF, Whitcomb RF, Ishijima T, Steere RL (1972) Helical filaments produced by a mycoplasma-like organism associated with corn stunt disease. Science 176:521–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doi Y, Tersanaka M, Yora K, Assuyama H (1967) Mycoplasma-or PLT group-like microorganisms found in the phloem elements of plants infected with mulberry dwarf, potato witches’ broom, aster yellows or Paulownia witches’ broom. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 33:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eden-Green S, Tully JG (1979) Isolation of Acholeplasma spp. from coconut palms affected by lethal yellowing disease in Jamaica. Curr Microbiol 2:311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edward DG (1947) A selective medium for pleuropneumonia-like organisms. J Gen Microbiol 1:238–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freundt EA, Whitcomb RF, Barile MF, Razin S, Tully JG (1984) Proposal for elevation of the family Acholeplasmataceae to ordinal rank: Acholeplasmatales. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34:346–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gasparich GE, Whitcomb RF, Dodge D, French FE, Glass J, Williamson DL (2004) The genus Spiroplasma and its non-helical descendents: phylogenetic classification, correlation with phenotype and roots of the Mycoplasma mycoides clade. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:893–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gros O, Saillard C, Helias C, Le Goff F, Marjolet M, Bové JM, Chastel C (1996) Serological and molecular characterization of Mesoplasma seiffertii strains isolated from hematophagous dipterans in France. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:112–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gur E, Sauer RT (2008) Evolution of the ssrA degradation tag in Mycoplasma. Specificity switch to a different protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:16113–16118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hill AC, Polak-Vogelzang AA, Angulo AF (1992) Acholeplasma multilocale sp. nov., isolated from a horse and a rabbit. Int J Syst Bacteriol 42:513–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hong SW, Lee JS, Chung KS (2011) Effect of enzyme producing microorganisms on the biomass of epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in vermicompost. Bioresour Technol 102:6344–6347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hopfe M, Hegemann JH, Henrich B (2005) HinT proteins and their putative interaction partners Mollicutes and Chlamydiaceae. BMC Microbiol 5:27PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team-Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group (2004) ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1243–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johansson K-E, Pettersson B (2002) Taxonomy of Mollicutes. In: Razin S, Herrman R (eds) Molecular biology and pathogenicity of mycoplasmas. Kluwer, London, pp 1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim JN, Roth A, Breaker RR (2007) Guanine riboswitch variants from Mesoplasma florum selectively recognize 2′-deoxyguanosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16092–16097PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Knight TF Jr (2004) Reclassification of Mesoplasma pleciae as Acholeplasma pleciae comb. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequence data. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1951–1952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Markham PG, Clark TB, Whitcomb RF (1983) Culture techniques for spiroplasmas from arthropods. Methods Mycoplasmol 2:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McCoy RE, Caudwell A, Chang CJ, Tully JG, Rose DL, Carle P, Bové JM (1984) Acholeplasma florum: a new species isolated from plants. Int J Syst Bacteriol 34:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Navas-Castillo J, Laigret F, Bové JM (1993) 16SrDNA sequence analysis of Acholeplasma seifertii, a mollicute from plant surfaces, and its transfer Mesoplasma, a new genus in the spiroplasma phylogenetic group. Nucl Acids Res 21:2249PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Pollack JD, Williams MV, Banzon J, Jones MA, Harvey L, Tully JG (1996) Comparative metabolism of Mesoplasma, Entomoplasma, Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:885–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Razin S, Freundt EA (1984) Class I. Mollicutes Edward and Freundt 1967, 267AL Order I. Mycoplasmatales Freundt 1955, 71AL. In: Krieg NR, Holt JG (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 740–742Google Scholar
  28. Robinson IM, Freundt EA (1987) Proposal for an amended classification of anaerobic Mollicutes. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:78–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rose DL, Kocka JP, Somerson NL, Tully JG, Whitcomb RF, Carle P, Bové JM, Colflesh DE, Williamson DL (1990) Mycoplasma lactucae sp. nov., a sterol-requiring mollicute from plant surface. Int J Syst Bacteriol 40:138–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rose DL, Tully JG, Bové JM, Whitcomb RF (1993) A test for measuring growth responses of Mollicutes to serum and polyoxyethylene sorbitan. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:527–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saglio P, L’hospital M, Lafleche D, Dupont G, Bové JM, Tully JG, Freundt EA (1973) Spiroplasma citri gen. and sp. n.: a mycoplasmalike organisms associated with “stubborn” disease of citrus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 23:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Toth KF, Harrison N, Sears BB (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among members of the class Mollicutes deduced from rps3 gene sequences. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:119–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tully JG (1983) Cloning and filtration techniques for mycoplasmas. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tully JG (1984) The family Acholeplasmataceae, genus Acholeplasma. In: Krieg NR, Holt JM (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 781–787Google Scholar
  35. Tully JG, Rose DL, Whitcomb RF, Hackett KJ, Clark TB, Henegar RB, Clark E, Carle P, Bové JM (1987) Characterization of some new insect-derived acholeplasmas. Isr J Med Sci 23:699–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Tully JG, Rose DL, Carle P, Bové JM, Hackett KJ, Whitcomb RF (1988) Acholeplasma entomophilum sp. nov., from gut contents of a wide range of host insects. Int J Syst Bacteriol 38:164–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tully JG, Rose DL, Hackett KJ, Whitcomb RF, Carle P, Bové JM, Colflesh DE, Williamson DL (1989) Mycoplasma ellychniae sp. nov., a sterol-requiring Mollicute from the firefly beetle Ellychnia corrusca. Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tully JG, Rose DL, McCoy RE, Carle P, Bové JM, Whitcomb RF, Weisburg WG (1990) Mycoplasma melaleucae sp. nov., a sterol-requiring mollicute from flowers of several tropical plants. Int J Syst Bacteriol 40:143–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tully JG, Bové JM, Laigret F, Whitcomb RF (1993) Revised taxonomy of the Class Mollicutes: proposed elevation of a monophyletic cluster of arthropod-associated Mollicutes to ordinal rank (Entomoplasmatales ord. nov.) with provision for familial rank to separate species with nonhelical morphology (Entomoplasmatacea fam. nov.) from helical species (Spiroplasmatacea), and emended description of the order Mycoplasmatales, Family Mycoplasmatacea. Int J Syst Bacteriol 43:378–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tully JG, Whitcomb RF, Hackett KJ, Rose DL, Henegar RB, Bové JM, Carle P, Williamson DL, Clark TB (1994) Taxonomic descriptions of eight new non-sterol-requiring mollicutes assigned to the Genus Mesoplasma. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:685–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tully JG, Whitcomb RF, Hackett KJ, Williamson DL, Laigret F, Carle P, Bové JM, Henegar RB, Ellis NM, Dodge DE, Adams J (1998) Entomoplasma freundtii sp. nov., a new species from a green tiger beetle (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:1197–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Volokhov DV, Neverov AA, George J, Kong H, Liu SX, Anderson C, Davidson MK, Chizhikov V (2007) Genetic analysis of housekeeping genes of members of the genus Acholeplasma: phylogeny and complementary molecular markers to the 16S rRNA gene. Mol Phylogenet Evol 44:699–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wacker A, Buck J, Mathieu D, Richter C, Wohnert J, Schwalbe H (2011) Structure and dynamics of the deoxyguanosine-sensing riboswitch studies by NMR-spectroscopy. Nucl Acids Res 39:6802–6812PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Weisburg WG, Tully JG, Rose DL, Petzel JP, Oyaizu H, Yang D, Mandelco L, Sechrest J, Lawrence TG, Van Etten J (1989) A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification. J Bacteriol 171:6455–6467PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Whitcomb RF (1983) Culture media for spiroplasmas. Methods Mycoplasmol 1:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Williamson DL, Tully JG, Rose DL, Hackett KJ, Henegar R, Carle P, Bové JM, Colflesh DE, Whitcomb RF (1990) Mycoplasma somnilux sp. nov., Mycoplasma luminosum, and Mycoplasma lucivorax sp. nov., new sterol-requiring Mollicutes from firefly beetles (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). Int J Syst Bacteriol 40:160–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Woese CR, Maniloff J, Zablen LB (1980) Phologenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:494–498PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang Z, Wang H, Zhu J, Suneethi S, Zheng J (2012) Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features. Bioresour Technol 118:563–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fisher College of Science and MathematicsTowson UniversityTowsonUSA

Personalised recommendations