Effects of Cellular Phone- and Wi-Fi-Induced Electromagnetic Radiation on Oxidative Stress and Molecular Pathways in Brain
It has been suggested that the widespread use of cellular telephones and wireless devices may result in increased health risks resulting from brain exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The situation has prompted many investigations into the interaction between EMR and neuronal cells, even at intensities not able to produce thermal effects. This chapter reviews the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) EMR exposure on the central nervous system in humans and experimental animals.
Several studies have suggested that EMR emitted by wireless devices can interfere with learning and memory in both animal models and human, but the results obtained are controversial and the molecular basis of this interaction is still unclear. Electromagnetic radiation may induce some degenerative effects in the brain by increasing oxidative stress and DNA breakage plus interference with the blood–brain barrier permeability. There are also recent reports on the role of Wi-Fi and mobile phone frequencies on Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels. The EMR increases ROS production in the neurons through the activation of oxidant system including NADPH oxidase activity and nitric oxide production. These effects are accompanied by a decrease in brain tissue of enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase together with a fall in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione and vitamin C.
Cell phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR appears to induce degenerative effects through increase of oxidative stress and decrease of antioxidants in the brain that affect neuronal physiological functions. Antioxidants seem to counteract the effects on the EMR, however.
KeywordsAntioxidants Brain Calcium ion Oxidative stress Wi-Fi
Dorsal root ganglion
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Reactive oxygen species
Transient receptor potential
Melastatin-like transient receptor potential 2
Voltage-gated calcium channels
Wireless local area networks
The authors wish to thank Dr. Peter J. Butterworth (Nutritional Sciences Division King’s College London, UK) for polishing English of the manuscript.
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