Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ronnier Luo

Fechner’s Colors and Behnam’s Top

  • John H. Krantz
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27851-8_65-2

Synonyms

Definitions

Fechner colors refer to the illusory colors that result from the repeated flashing of black and white patterns. These colors are often referred to as Fechner colors after their discoverer. Behnam’s top is a pattern of spinning patterns developed for a spinning disk to create these illusory colors that have become a standard.

Basic Phenomenon and History

Fechner colors refer to the creation of illusory or subjective colors through an alternating pattern of black and white stimulus. Fechner reported the discovery of this illusion in an 1838 paper, and his name has been given to these illusory colors. The discovery was accidental as Fechner at the time was involved in the creation of disks to create different shades of gray [ 1]. From the beginning, a spinning disk was the means for creating these illusory colors. There were several studies throughout the...

Keywords

Color Chip Color Match Color Opponent Flicker Rate Subjective Color 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. 1.
    Bagley, F.W.: An investigation of Fechner’s colors. Am. J. Psychol. 13(4), 488–525 (1902)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Behnam, C.E.: The artificial spectrum top. Nature 51, 200 (1894)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
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    Brown, J.L.: Flicker and intermittent stimulation. In: Graham, C.H. (ed.) Vision and Visual Perception, pp. 251–320. Wiley, New York (1965)Google Scholar
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    Falk, D., Brill, D., Stork, D.: Seeing the Light. Harper & Row, New York (1986)Google Scholar
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    Gerjuoy, H., Clarke, F.R.: Fechner colors on television. Am. J. Psychol. 71(3), 606–607 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Jarvis, J.R.: On Fechner-Benham subjective color. Vis. Res. 17, 445–471 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Krantz, J. H.: Behnam’s top and Fechner colors. http://psych.hanover.edu/krantz/BenhamTop/ (1999). Accessed 6 Jun 2012
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    Rosenblum, K., Anderson, M.L., Purple, R.L.: Normal and color defective perceptions of Fechner-Benham colors: implications for color vision theory. Vis. Res. 21, 1483–1490 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Schramme, J.: Changes in pattern induced flicker colors are mediated by the blue-yellow opponent process. Vis. Res. 32(11), 2129–2134 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Natural Sciences, Department of PsychologyHanover CollegeHanoverUSA