Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ronnier Luo

Texture Measurement, Modeling, and Computer Graphics

  • Eric Kirchner
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27851-8_363-1



Following a definition by ASTM, texture can be defined as the visible surface structure depending on the size and organization of small constituent parts of a material, typically surface structure of a woven fabric. Many other materials that are used in the manufacturing industry also show texture, often of very different types. Examples are various types of wood, satin, paper, foods, and injection-molded plastics. This review focuses on effect coatings, since the characterization of their texture is advanced as compared to the case for most other materials. Also, effect coatings such as metallic and pearlescent coatings are widely used in the automotive, cosmetics, and packaging industry.

The texture of effect coatings is associated with the spatial variation in appearance caused by nonuniformity of colorant. This texture depends on the type of lighting, as shown in Fig. 1. Under intense unidirectional lighting, glint...


Illumination Condition Effect Coating Texture Parameter Image Analysis Algorithm Computer Game Industry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Kitaguchi, S., Westland, S., Owens, H., Luo, M.R., Pointer, M.R.: Surface texture – a review. NPL Report DQL-OR 006 (2004); Kirchner, E.J.J., van den Kieboom, G.J., Njo, S.L., Supèr, R., Gottenbos, R.: The appearance of metallic and pearlescent materials. Col. Res. Appl. 32, 256–266 (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kitaguchi, S., Westland, S., Kirchner, E.J.J., van den Kieboom G.J., Luo, M.R.: Computational model for perceptual coarseness prediction. In: Proceedings Conference on Graphics, Imaging and Vision, pp. 267–282 (2006); Huang, Z., Xu, H., Luo, M.R.: Camera-based model to predict the total difference between effect coatings under directional illumination, Leeds (UK), Chin. Opt. Lett. 9, 093301–093305 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kigle-Böckler, G.,Weixel, S.: New measurement system for characterizing the total color impression of effect coatings. In: Proceeding Conference of AIC, Newcastle (UK), pp. 209–212 (2013); Ellens, M.S., Lamy, F.: From color to appearance in the real world. In: Proceeding of Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XVII, SPIE, Burlingame (USA), vol. 8291 (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klein, G.A.: Industrial Color Physics. Springer, New York (2010); Kigle-Böckler, G.: New and innovative testing technologies for effect finishes. In: Proceeding Conference of AIC, Sydney (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cramer, W.R.: Die neue Version der Gonio-Vision Box. Phänomen Farbe, 38–39 (2012); Martínez-Verdú, F., Perales, E., Viqueira, V., Chorro, E., Burgos, F.J., Pujol, J.: Comparison of colorimetric features of some current lighting booths for obtaining a right visual and instrumental correlation for gonio-apparent coatings and plastics. In: Proceeding of CIE x037:2012 Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency, Hangzhou (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huertas, R., Melgosa, M., Hita, E.: Influence of random-dot textures on perception of suprathreshold color differences. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2067–2076 (2006); Xin, J.H., Shen, H.L., Lam, C.C.: Investigation of texture effect on visual colour difference evaluation. Col. Res. Appl. 30, 341–347 (2005); Montag, E.D., Berns, R.S.: Lightness dependencies and the effect of texture on suprathreshold lightness tolerances. Col. Res. Appl. 25, 241–249 (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dekker, N., Kirchner, E.J.J., Supèr, R., van den Kieboom, G.J., Gottenbos, R.: Total appearance differences for metallic and pearlescent materials: contributions from color and texture. Col. Res. Appl. 36, 4–14 (2011); Huang, Z., Xu, H., Luo, M.R., Cui, G., Feng, H.: Assessing total differences for effective samples having variations in color, coarseness and glint. Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 717–720 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Longley W.V.: Automotive color certification. Col. Res. Appl. 20, 50–54 (1995); Ariño, I., Johansson, S., Kleist, U., Liljenström-Leander, E., Rigdahl, M.: The effect of texture on the pass/fail colour tolerances of injection-molded plastics. Col. Res. Appl. 32, 47–54 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirchner, E.J.J., Ravi, J.: Setting tolerances on color and texture for automotive coatings. Col. Res. Appl. 39, 88–98 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rentschler, T.: Measuring sparkling blues without blues. Eur. Coat. J. 11, 78–83 (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Kirchner, E.J.J., Ravi, J.: Predicting and measuring the perceived texture of car paints. In: Proceeding 3rd International Conference on Appearance. “Predicting Perceptions”, Edinburgh (UK) (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meyer, G., Shimizu, C., Eggly, A., Fischer, D., King, J., Rodrigues, A.: Computer aided design of automotive finishes. In: Proceeding of AIC Colour, pp. 685–688 (2005); Ershov, S., Kolchin, K. and Myszkowski, K.: Rendering pearlescent appearance based on paint-composition modeling. Eurographics 2001, Granada (Spain), Comp. Graph. For. 20, C221-C238 (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van der Lans, I.B.N., Kirchner, E., Half, A.: Accurate appearance-based visualization of car paints. In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging and Vision, Amsterdam, pp. 17–23 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ferrero, A., Campos, J., Rabal, A.M., Pons, A.: A single analytical model for sparkle and graininess patterns in texture of effect coatings. Opt. Exp. 21, 26812–26819 (2013)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kandi, S.G., Tehran, M.A.: Investigating the effect of texture on the performance of color difference formulae. Col. Res. Appl. 35, 94–100 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Color Research DepartmentAkzoNobel Performance CoatingsSassenheimThe Netherlands