Trichromatic theories of color mixture have had a tendency to overemphasize the role that L, M, and S-cone receptors have for color perception. The realization, however, that these physiological units can only explain the laws of additive color mixture and color matching (metamerism) has led to an end of this bias. Modern cone-opponent color vision models combine inputs of one excitatory cone type in the center and another inhibitory type (or types) in the surround of the cell’s receptive field (e.g., L-center−M-surround, giving an “L–M” ON-center cell, or an M-center−L-surround, “M–L” ON-center cell (also called increment cell). The opposite configuration is found in “–L + M” and “–M + L” OFF-center cells (decrement cells). Ganglion cells with S-cone inputs can be characterized as “M–(S + M)” and “S–(L + M)” cells [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. This organization in spatially antagonistic receptive fields and parallel pathways has moved the scientific interest from the ancient idea of cones as...
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