Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ronnier Luo

Melanopsin Retinal Ganglion Cells

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27851-8_275-1

Synonyms

Definition

A subset of retinal ganglion cells characterized by their expression of melanopsin and their ability to respond directly to light. Melanopsin is an opsin protein structurally and phylogenetically related to rod and cone opsins. It binds retinaldehyde as a chromophore and activates a G-protein signaling cascade upon photon absorption. As a result, melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are depolarized by light even when physically, pharmacologically, or genetically isolated from rod and cone influences. This allows them to function as an independent origin of visual information. mRGCs are known to encode environmental brightness for such visual reflexes as circadian photoentrainment and regulating pupil size. They likely also make as yet ill-defined contributions to other visual processes including perceptual vision.

Discovery and Functions

Until around the...

Keywords

Retinal Ganglion Cell Amacrine Cell Perceptual Vision Pupil Light Cone Opsin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.
    Bailes, H.J., Lucas, R.J.: Melanopsin and inner retinal photoreception. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 67, 99–111 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Foster, R.G., Hankins, M.W.: Non-rod, non-cone photoreception in the vertebrates. Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 507–527 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berson, D.M., Dunn, F.A., Takao, M.: Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Science 295, 1070–1073 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Provencio, I., Jiang, G., De Grip, W.J., Hayes, W.P., Rollag, M.D.: Melanopsin: an opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 340–345 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lucas, R.J., et al.: Diminished pupillary light reflex at high irradiances in melanopsin-knockout mice. Science 299, 245–247 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Melyan, Z., Tarttelin, E.E., Bellingham, J., Lucas, R.J., Hankins, M.W.: Addition of human melanopsin renders mammalian cells photoresponsive. Nature 433, 741–745 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Qiu, X., et al.: Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin. Nature 433, 745–749 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Panda, S., et al.: Illumination of the melanopsin signaling pathway. Science 307, 600–604 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schmidt, T.M., et al.: Melanopsin-positive intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells: from form to function. J. Neurosci. 31, 16094–16101 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ecker, J.L., et al.: Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision. Neuron 67, 49–60 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brown, T.M., et al.: Melanopsin contributions to irradiance coding in the thalamo-cortical visual system. PLoS Biol. 8, e1000558 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dacey, D.M., et al.: Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in primate retina signal colour and irradiance and project to the LGN. Nature 433, 749–754 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sand, A., Schmidt, T.M., Kofuji, P.: Diverse types of ganglion cell photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 31, 287–302 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Do, M.T., Yau, K.W.: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Physiol. Rev. 90, 1547–1581 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lucas, R.J., et al.: Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age. Trends Neurosci. 37, 1–9 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hughes, S., Hankins, M.W., Foster, R.G., Peirson, S.N.: Melanopsin phototransduction: slowly emerging from the dark. Prog. Brain Res. 199, 19–40 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Life SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK