Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ronnier Luo


  • Jae Hong Choi
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27851-8_182-1



The term dye refers to compounds which can impart color to a substrate when applied in solution from either aqueous or organic solvents. The substrates include textiles, plastics, polymers, etc. Both the applications to materials and color constitutions of dyes involve essentially chemical principles. Dyes and pigments are both commonly applied as a coloring material, but they are distinguished on the basis of their solubility either in water or organic solvents; therefore dyes are soluble, whereas pigments are insoluble.

History of the Development of Synthetic Dyes

Until the middle of the nineteenth century, the dyeing of textiles and leather was carried out using dyes derived from animal and vegetable sources. Of such natural dyes, indigo is perhaps the most well-known and most important material [1]. Alizarin is the most important species of anthraquinone-based red dyes obtained from the roots of plants of the Rubiaceae. A highly prized plant was madder...


High Occupied Molecular Orbital Lower Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Bathochromic Shift Electron Acceptor Group Valence Bond Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Freeman, H.S., Peters, A.T. (eds.): Colorants for Non-textile Applications. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Welham, R.D.: The early history of the synthetic dye industry: part 1 the chemical industry. J. Soc. Dye Col. 79(3), 98–105 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rys, P., Zollinger, H.: Fundamentals of the Chemistry and Application of Dyes. Wiley-Interscience, London (1990)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peter, J.T., Anthony, S.T.: A history of the international dyestuff industry. Am. Dyestuff Rep. 81(11), 59–100 (1992)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Welham, R.D.: The early history of the synthetic dye industry: part 2 the industrial history (1856–1900). J. Soc. Dye Col. 79(3), 146–152 (1963)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zollinger, H.: Color Chemistry: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Organic Dyes and Pigments. VHCA/Wiley-VCH, Zürich (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    McLaren, K.: The Colour Science of Dyes and Pigments. Adam Hilger Ltd, Bristol (1986)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Green, A.G., Saunders, K.H.: The ionamines: a new class of dyestuffs for acetate silk. J. Soc. Dye Col. 39(1), 10 (1923)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shore, J. (ed.): Colorants and Auxiliaries, vol. 1. SDC, Bradford (1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim, S.H. (ed.): Functional Dyes. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Griffiths, J. (ed.): Developments in the Chemistry and Technology of Organic Dyes. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1984)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gordon, P.F., Gregory, P.: Organic Chemistry in Colour. Springer, Berlin (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Griffiths, J.: Colour and Constitution of Organic Molecules. Academic Press, London (1976)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fabian, J., Hartmann, H.: Light Absorption of Organic Colorants. Springer, Berlin (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Griffiths, J., Roozpeikar, B.: Synthesis and electronic absorption spectra of dicyano-derivatives of 4-diethylaminoazobenzene. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I, 42–45 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giles, C.H., Hojiwala, B.J., Shah, C.D.: Quantum efficiency measurements of fading of some disperse dyes in nylon and polyester films and in solution. J. Soc. Dye Col. 88(11), 403–407 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Christian, R., Thomas, W.: Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, 4th edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Griffiths, J., Hill, J., Fishwick, B.: The application of PPP-MO theory to the halochromism of 4-aminoazobenzene dyes. Dyes Pigments 15(4), 307–317 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bello, K.A., Griffiths, J.: Violet to cyan azo dyes derived from 4-amino-3-nitrobenzaldehyde as diazo component. Dyes Pigments 11(1), 65–76 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hallas, G.: The effect of terminal groups in 4-aminoazobenzene and disperse dyes. J. Soc. Dye Col. 95(8), 285 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuehni, R.G.: Color: an Introduction to Practice and Principles. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Textile System EngineeringKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea