Layout decomposition is a key stage in triple patterning lithography manufacturing process, where the original designed layout is divided into three masks. There will be three exposure/etching steps, through which the circuit layout can be produced. When the distance between two input features is less than certain minimum distance min s , they need to be assigned to different masks (colors) to avoid coloring conflict. Sometimes coloring conflict can be resolved by splitting a pattern into two different masks. However, this introduces stitches, which lead to yield loss because of overlay error. Therefore, two of the main objectives in layout decomposition are conflict minimization and stitch minimization. An example of triple patterning layout decomposition is shown in Fig. 1, where all features are divided into three masks without any conflict and one stitch is introduced.