Physiology of the Developing Kidney: Acid–Base Homeostasis and its Disorders

  • Peter D. Yorgin
  • Elizabeth G. Ingulli
  • Robert H. Mak
Living reference work entry


The body is highly dependent on acid–base control by the kidneys, lungs, and buffer systems to provide a cellular environment suitable for normal health, growth, and development. The acid and alkali loads from ingesting food and fluid must be managed so that the extracellular hydrogen ion (H+) concentration is maintained within a very narrow range. There are serious consequences from acid–base perturbations. Patients with severe acidemia, high blood levels of H+, may have problems with hyperkalemia, increased susceptibility to cardiac dysrhythmias, osteopenia, recurrent nephrolithiasis, skeletal muscle atrophy, and growth retardation in children. Conversely, patients with severe alkalemia, low blood H+ concentration, may experience arteriolar constriction, refractory dysrhythmias, hypoventilation, hypokalemia, decreased ionized calcium, paresthesias, and even coma. The following information will serve as practical assistance to physicians who manage acid–base problems in children.


Chronic Kidney Disease Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis Serum Bicarbonate Thick Ascend Limb 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter D. Yorgin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elizabeth G. Ingulli
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Robert H. Mak
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pediatric NephrologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Pediatric Nephrology DivisionRady Children’s HospitalSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Kidney Transplant ProgramRady Children’s HospitalSan DiegoUSA

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