Urolithiasis in Children

  • Vidar Edvardsson
Living reference work entry


A significant increase in the frequency of childhood urolithiasis has been observed during the last 10–15 years. A recent study observed an increase in the incidence of symptomatic kidney stones from 7.9 per 100,000 children in 1996 to 18.5 per 100,000 in 2007. The highest incidence was observed in females aged 14–17 years. These findings have been replicated by others. The reason for this increase is not clear while many hypotheses have been proposed. Most affected children have idiopathic calcium stone disease, while monogenic disorders, which may or may not be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), likely account for approximately 10 % of pediatric kidney stone cases. Both environmental and hereditary factors significantly contribute to the risk of stone formation. All children with kidney stone diseases deserve a meticulous evaluation of risk factors which forms the basis for individualized and targeted treatment of the underlying disorders.


Kidney Stone Stone Formation Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland and Faculty of Medicine, School of Health SciencesUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland

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