Pediatric Bladder Disorders

  • Etienne Berard
Living reference work entry


Incontinence and bladder malfunction are as old as humanity [1]. In the Ebers (or Eberth) Papyrus (1600 bc), the recommended treatment is reed extract given to the child and her childminder. Aristotle (384–322 bc) observed the role of profound sleep in nocturnal incontinence, and Pliny the Elder (23–79 ad) proposed several different phytotherapies. Galen (130–200 ad) discovered the function of the kidneys and the circulation of urine through the bladder. He classified several pathologic conditions with abnormal miction and observed modifications of bladder thickness in patients. In African cultures, for enuresis, a toad was tied to the child’s penis, and in the case of nocturnal incontinence, the toad croaked (the first model of alarm therapy with a reduced cost). During the Middle Ages, the recommended patron saints were Vitus (for neurological disorders) and Catherine of Alexandria (recommended for self-control). Armand Trousseau (1801–1867), one of the first French pediatricians, who suffered from incontinence himself, proposed belladonna for nocturnal disorders and strychnine for diurnal troubles. In the twentieth century, Freudism helped doctors to put a mask on their ignorance. For a long time, the only response of a practitioner was: “Don’t worry, it will be better after puberty or on your wedding day” or “I have made a good appointment for you with a psychiatrist.”


Pelvic Floor Bladder Neck LUTLower Urinary Tract Bladder Dysfunction Neurogenic Bladder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Nephrology UnitUniversitary Hospital of Nice (France)NiceFrance

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