Nephrotoxins and Pediatric Kidney Injury

  • Takashi Sekine
Living reference work entry


The kidney and liver play central roles in the elimination of xenobiotic substances including drugs, environmental substances, food additives, and their metabolites. All xenobiotic substances are ultimately excreted into the urine via the kidney or into the feces via the liver and bile duct in their original form or as metabolites [1–3]. Considering this essential role of the kidney, it is reasonable expecting it to be susceptible to these xenobiotics. In addition, several specific functions of the kidney (e.g., tubular transport, metabolism of xenobiotics, and concentration of urine) and changes in hemodynamics in the kidney may cause nephrotoxicity.


Glomerular Filtrate Rate Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Acute Kidney Injury Tubular Cell Proximal Tubular Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsToho University Faculty of MedicineMeguro-ku, TokyoJapan

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