Diagnostic Imaging of the Child with Suspected Renal Disease

  • Jonathan Loewen
  • Larry A. Greenbaum
Living reference work entry


Imaging is essential for the diagnosis and management of many disorders of the urinary tract (UT). Clinicians should be familiar with the available techniques, including their indications, limitations, and potential complications.


Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Acute Pyelonephritis Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Renal Vein Thrombosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Darge K, Grattan-Smith JD, Riccabona M. Pediatric uroradiology: state of the art. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41(1):82–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chiara A, Chirico G, Barbarini M, De Vecchi E, Rondini G. Ultrasonic evaluation of kidney length in term and preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 1989;149(2):94–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen HL, Cooper J, Eisenberg P, Mandel FS, Gross BR, Goldman MA, et al. Normal length of fetal kidneys: sonographic study in 397 obstetric patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991;157(3):545–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blane CE, Bookstein FL, DiPietro MA, Kelsch RC. Sonographic standards for normal infant kidney length. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1985;145(6):1289–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fitzsimons RB. Kidney length in the newborn measured by ultrasound. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983;72(6):885–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Han BK, Babcock DS. Sonographic measurements and appearance of normal kidneys in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1985;145(3):611–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rosenbaum DM, Korngold E, Teele RL. Sonographic assessment of renal length in normal children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1984;142(3):467–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carrico CW, Zerin JM. Sonographic measurement of renal length in children: does the position of the patient matter? Pediatr Radiol. 1996;26(8):553–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Sanctis JT, Connolly SA, Bramson RT. Effect of patient position on sonographically measured renal length in neonates, infants, and children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170(5):1381–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haugstvedt S, Lundberg J. Kidney size in normal children measured by sonography. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1980;14(3):251–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dinkel E, Ertel M, Dittrich M, Peters H, Berres M, Schulte-Wissermann H. Kidney size in childhood. Sonographical growth charts for kidney length and volume. Pediatr Radiol. 1985;15(1):38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen JJ, Pugach J, Patel M, Luisiri A, Steinhardt GF. The renal length nomogram: multivariable approach. J Urol. 2002;168(5):2149–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Emamian SA, Nielsen MB, Pedersen JF, Ytte L. Kidney dimensions at sonography: correlation with age, sex, and habitus in 665 adult volunteers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;160(1):83–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schlesinger AE, Hernandez RJ, Zerin JM, Marks TI, Kelsch RC. Interobserver and intraobserver variations in sonographic renal length measurements in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991;156(5):1029–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khazaei MR, Mackie F, Rosenberg AR, Kainer G. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23(1):99–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hricak H, Slovis TL, Callen CW, Callen PW, Romanski RN. Neonatal kidneys: sonographic anatomic correlation. Radiology. 1983;147(3):699–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Erwin BC, Carroll BA, Muller H. A sonographic assessment of neonatal renal parameters. J Ultrasound Med. 1985;4(5):217–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wiersma F, Toorenvliet BR, Ruige M, Holscher HC. Increased echogenicity of renal cortex: a transient feature in acutely ill children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190(1):240–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fernbach SK, Maizels M, Conway JJ. Ultrasound grading of hydronephrosis: introduction to the system used by the Society for Fetal Urology. Pediatr Radiol. 1993;23(6):478–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maizels M, Reisman ME, Flom LS, Nelson J, Fernbach S, Firlit CF, et al. Grading nephroureteral dilatation detected in the first year of life: correlation with obstruction. J Urol. 1992;148(2 Pt 2):609–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yamazaki Y, Yago R, Toma H. Sonographic characteristics of the urinary tract in healthy neonates. J Urol. 2001;166(3):1054–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jequier S, Rousseau O. Sonographic measurements of the normal bladder wall in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;149(3):563–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hiraoka M, Hori C, Tsuchida S, Sudo M. Ultrasonographic evaluation of bladder volume in young children. Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9(3):351–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hiraoka M, Tsukahara H, Tsuchida S, Hori C, Sudo M. Ultrasonographic evaluation of bladder volume in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 1993;7(5):533–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Middleton WD, Kellman GM, Melson GL, Madrazo BL. Postbiopsy renal transplant arteriovenous fistulas: color Doppler US characteristics. Radiology. 1989;171(1):253–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riccabona M, Schwinger W, Ring E. Arteriovenous fistula after renal biopsy in children. J Ultrasound Med. 1998;17(8):505–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mutze S, Turk I, Schonberger B, Filimonow SI, Bollow M, Petersein J, et al. Colour-coded duplex sonography in the diagnostic assessment of vascular complications after kidney transplantation in children. Pediatr Radiol. 1997;27(12):898–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kuzmic AC, Brkljacic B, Ivankovic D, Galesic K. Doppler sonographic renal resistance index in healthy children. Eur Radiol. 2000;10(10):1644–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bude RO, Rubin JM, Adler RS. Power versus conventional color Doppler sonography: comparison in the depiction of normal intrarenal vasculature. Radiology. 1994;192(3):777–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Riccabona M, Ring E, Schwinger W, Aigner R. Amplitude coded-colour Doppler sonography in paediatric renal disease. Eur Radiol. 2001;11(5):861–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dacher JN, Pfister C, Monroc M, Eurin D, LeDosseur P. Power Doppler sonographic pattern of acute pyelonephritis in children: comparison with CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;166(6):1451–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carmichael J, Easty M. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40(6):963–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Darge K. Diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux with ultrasonography. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17(1):52–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Darge K. Voiding urosonography with US contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children. II. Comparison with radiological examinations. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(1):54–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Berrocal T, Gaya F, Arjonilla A, Lonergan GJ. Vesicoureteral reflux: diagnosis and grading with echo-enhanced cystosonography versus voiding cystourethrography. Radiology. 2001;221(2):359–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Darge K, Troeger J, Duetting T, Zieger B, Rohrschneider W, Moehring K, et al. Reflux in young patients: comparison of voiding US of the bladder and retrovesical space with echo enhancement versus voiding cystourethrography for diagnosis. Radiology. 1999;210(1):201–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bosio M. Cystosonography with echocontrast: a new imaging modality to detect vesicoureteric reflux in children. Pediatr Radiol. 1998;28(4):250–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Valentini AL, Salvaggio E, Manzoni C, Rendeli C, Destito C, Summaria V, et al. Contrast-enhanced gray-scale and color Doppler voiding urosonography versus voiding cystourethrography in the diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. J Clin Ultrasound. 2001;29(2):65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    O'Neill WC. Renal relevant radiology: use of ultrasound in kidney disease and nephrology procedures. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(2):373–81.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kleinman PK, Diamond DA, Karellas A, Spevak MR, Nimkin K, Belanger P. Tailored low-dose fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography for the reevaluation of vesicoureteral reflux in girls. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;162(5):1151–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hernandez RJ, Goodsitt MM. Reduction of radiation dose in pediatric patients using pulsed fluoroscopy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167(5):1247–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weese DL, Greenberg HM, Zimmern PE. Contrast media reactions during voiding cystourethrography or retrograde pyelography. Urology. 1993;41(1):81–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vates TS, Shull MJ, Underberg-Davis SJ, Fleisher MH. Complications of voiding cystourethrography in the evaluation of infants with prenatally detected hydronephrosis. J Urol. 1999;162(3 Pt 2):1221–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schmit P, Sfez M. Management of anxious and painful manifestations in pediatric uroradiology. J Radiol. 1997;78(5):367–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ljungman G, Kreuger A, Andreasson S, Gordh T, Sorensen S. Midazolam nasal spray reduces procedural anxiety in children. Pediatrics. 2000;105(1 Pt 1):73–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Elder JS, Longenecker R. Premedication with oral midazolam for voiding cystourethrography in children: safety and efficacy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164(5):1229–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lebowitz RL, Olbing H, Parkkulainen KV, Smellie JM, Tamminen-Mobius TE. International system of radiographic grading of vesicoureteric reflux. International Reflux Study in Children. Pediatr Radiol. 1985;15(2):105–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jequier S, Jequier JC. Reliability of voiding cystourethrography to detect reflux. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989;153(4):807–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Paltiel HJ, Rupich RC, Kiruluta HG. Enhanced detection of vesicoureteral reflux in infants and children with use of cyclic voiding cystourethrography. Radiology. 1992;184(3):753–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Andresen R, Wegner HE. Intravenous urography revisited in the age of ultrasound and computerized tomography: diagnostic yield in cases of renal colic, suspected pelvic and abdominal malignancies, suspected renal mass, and acute pyelonephritis. Urol Int. 1997;58(4):221–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bailey SR, Tyrrell PN, Hale M. A trial to assess the effectiveness of bowel preparation prior to intravenous urography. Clin Radiol. 1991;44(5):335–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bradley AJ, Taylor PM. Does bowel preparation improve the quality of intravenous urography? Br J Radiol. 1996;69(826):906–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stokland E, Hellstrom M, Hansson S, Jodal U, Oden A, Jacobsson B. Reliability of ultrasonography in identification of reflux nephropathy in children. BMJ. 1994;309(6949):235–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Smellie JM. The intravenous urogram in the detection and evaluation of renal damage following urinary tract infection. Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9(2):213–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kalra MK, Singh S, Blake MA. CT of the urinary tract: turning attention to radiation dose. Radiol Clin North Am. 2008;46(1):1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Goske MJ, Applegate KE, Boylan J, Butler PF, Callahan MJ, Coley BD, et al. The image gently campaign: working together to change practice. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190(2):273–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Siegel MJ, Luker GD. Pediatric applications of helical (spiral) CT. Radiol Clin North Am. 1995;33(5):997–1022.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brenner DJ, Hall EJ. Computed tomography–an increasing source of radiation exposure. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(22):2277–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    White KS. Invited article: helical/spiral CT scanning: a pediatric radiology perspective. Pediatr Radiol. 1996;26(1):5–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pappas JN, Donnelly LF, Frush DP. Reduced frequency of sedation of young children with multisection helical CT. Radiology. 2000;215(3):897–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Frush DP, Donnelly LF. Helical CT in children: technical considerations and body applications. Radiology. 1998;209(1):37–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Glockner JF, Vrtiska TJ. Renal MR and CT angiography: current concepts. Abdom Imaging. 2007;32(3):407–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rountas C, Vlychou M, Vassiou K, Liakopoulos V, Kapsalaki E, Koukoulis G, et al. Imaging modalities for renal artery stenosis in suspected renovascular hypertension: prospective intraindividual comparison of color Doppler US, CT angiography, GD-enhanced MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. Ren Fail. 2007;29(3):295–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Riccabona M. Urinary tract imaging in infancy. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39 Suppl 3:436–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kurian J, Epelman M, Darge K, Meyers K, Nijs E, Hellinger JC. The role of CT angiography in the evaluation of pediatric renovascular hypertension. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43(4):490–501. quiz 487–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Linebarger JS, Roy ML. Focus on diagnosis: common nuclear medicine studies in pediatrics. Pediatr Rev. 2007;28(11):415–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    He W, Fischman AJ. Nuclear imaging in the genitourinary tract: recent advances and future directions. Radiol Clin North Am. 2008;46(1):25–43. v.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Taylor AT. Radionuclides in nephrourology, part 1: Radiopharmaceuticals, quality control, and quantitative indices. J Nucl Med. 2014;55(4):608–15.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Conway JJ, Maizels M. The “well tempered” diuretic renogram: a standard method to examine the asymptomatic neonate with hydronephrosis or hydroureteronephrosis. A report from combined meetings of The Society for Fetal Urology and members of The Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Council--The Society of Nuclear Medicin. J Nucl Med. 1992;33(11):2047–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    O'Reilly P, Aurell M, Britton K, Kletter K, Rosenthal L, Testa T. Consensus on diuresis renography for investigating the dilated upper urinary tract. Radionuclides in Nephrourology Group Consensus Committee on Diuresis Renography. J Nucl Med. 1996;37(11):1872–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kass EJ, Majd M, Belman AB. Comparison of the diuretic renogram and the pressure perfusion study in children. J Urol. 1985;134(1):92–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    English PJ, Testa HJ, Gosling JA, Cohen SJ. Idiopathic hydronephrosis in childhood–a comparison between diuresis renography and upper urinary tract morphology. Br J Urol. 1982;54(6):603–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wong DC, Rossleigh MA, Farnsworth RH. F + 0 diuresis renography in infants and children. J Nucl Med. 1999;40(11):1805–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Eising EG, Bonzel KE, Zander C, Farahati J, Reiners C. Value of diuresis renography in the post-natal period of assumed physiological renal immaturity. Nucl Med Commun. 1997;18(11):1008–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wong JC, Rossleigh MA, Farnsworth RH. Utility of technetium-99m-MAG3 diuretic renography in the neonatal period. J Nucl Med. 1995;36(12):2214–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gordon I, Colarinha P, Fettich J, Fischer S, Frokier J, Hahn K, et al. Guidelines for standard and diuretic renography in children. Eur J Nucl Med. 2001;28(3):BP21–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Anderson PJ, Rangarajan V, Gordon I. Assessment of drainage in PUJ dilatation: pelvic excretion efficiency as an index of renal function. Nucl Med Commun. 1997;18(9):823–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Saunders CA, Choong KK, Larcos G, Farlow D, Gruenewald SM. Assessment of pediatric hydronephrosis using output efficiency. J Nucl Med. 1997;38(9):1483–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chaiwatanarat T, Padhy AK, Bomanji JB, Nimmon CC, Sonmezoglu K, Britton KE. Validation of renal output efficiency as an objective quantitative parameter in the evaluation of upper urinary tract obstruction. J Nucl Med. 1993;34(5):845–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rossleigh MA, Leighton DM, Farnsworth RH. Diuresis renography. The need for an additional view after gravity-assisted drainage. Clin Nucl Med. 1993;18(3):210–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gordon I, Mialdea-Fernandez RM, Peters AM. Pelviureteric junction obstruction. The value of a post-micturition view in 99mTc DTPA diuretic renography. Br J Urol. 1988;61(5):409–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jones DA, Lupton EW, George NJ. Effect of bladder filling on upper tract urodynamics in man. Br J Urol. 1990;65(5):492–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Piepsz A, Colarinha P, Gordon I, Hahn K, Olivier P, Roca I, et al. Guidelines for 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy in children. Eur J Nucl Med. 2001;28(3):BP37–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mandell GA, Eggli DF, Gilday DL, Heyman S, Leonard JC, Miller JH, et al. Procedure guideline for renal cortical scintigraphy in children. Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Nucl Med. 1997;38(10):1644–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mannes F, Bultynck E, Van Roijen N, Van Der Mauten L, Piepsz A, Ham HR. Utility of posterior oblique views in (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in children. J Nucl Med Technol. 2003;31(2):72–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ladron De Guevara D, Franken P, De Sadeleer C, Ham H, Piepsz A. Interobserver reproducibility in reporting on 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy for detection of late renal sequelae. J Nucl Med. 2001;42(4):564–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    De Sadeleer C, Tondeur M, Melis K, Van Espen MB, Verelst J, Ham H, et al. A multicenter trial on interobserver reproducibility in reporting on 99mTc-DMSA planar scintigraphy: a Belgian survey. J Nucl Med. 2000;41(1):23–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    van Luyk WH, Ensing GJ, Piers DA. Low renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA in patients with proximal tubular dysfunction. Eur J Nucl Med. 1983;8(9):404–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Takeda M, Katayama Y, Tsutsui T, Takahashi H, Komeyama T, Mizusawa T, et al. Value of dimercaptosuccinic acid single photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting renal injury in pediatric patients with vesicoureteral reflux. Comparison with dimercaptosuccinic acid planar scintigraphy and intravenous pyelography. Eur Urol. 1994;25(4):320–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Itoh K, Yamashita T, Tsukamoto E, Nonomura K, Furudate M, Koyanagi T. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of renal parenchymal damage by 99mTc-DMSA planar and SPECT scintigraphy. Ann Nucl Med. 1995;9(1):23–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    De Sadeleer C, Bossuyt A, Goes E, Piepsz A. Renal technetium-99m-DMSA SPECT in normal volunteers. J Nucl Med. 1996;37(8):1346–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Craig JC, Wheeler DM, Irwig L, Howman-Giles RB. How accurate is dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis? A meta-analysis of experimental studies. J Nucl Med. 2000;41(6):986–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rossleigh MA. The interrenicular septum. A normal anatomical variant seen on DMSA SPECT. Clin Nucl Med. 1994;19(11):953–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tondeur M, Melis K, De Sadeleer C, Verelst J, Van Espen MB, Ham H, et al. Inter-observer reproducibility of relative 99Tcm-DMSA uptake. Nucl Med Commun. 2000;21(5):449–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Manger WM, Eisenhofer G. Pheochromocytoma: diagnosis and management update. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2004;6(6):477–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lenders JW, Eisenhofer G, Mannelli M, Pacak K. Phaeochromocytoma. Lancet. 2005;366(9486):665–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Avram AM, Fig LM, Gross MD. Adrenal gland scintigraphy. Semin Nucl Med. 2006;36(3):212–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Stabin MG, Gelfand MJ. Dosimetry of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures. Q J Nucl Med. 1998;42(2):93–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    D'Errico G. The role of nuclear medicine in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux and/or reflux nephropathy. Rays. 2002;27(2):149–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Unver T, Alpay H, Biyikli NK, Ones T. Comparison of direct radionuclide cystography and voiding cystourethrography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Int. 2006;48(3):287–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Piepsz A, Ham HR. Pediatric applications of renal nuclear medicine. Semin Nucl Med. 2006;36(1):16–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Taylor AT. Radionuclides in nephrourology, Part 2: pitfalls and diagnostic applications. J Nucl Med. 2014;55(5):786–98.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pattaras JG, Rushton HG, Majd M. The role of 99m technetium dimercapto-succinic acid renal scans in the evaluation of occult ectopic ureters in girls with paradoxical incontinence. J Urol. 1999;162(3 Pt 1):821–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gharagozloo AM, Lebowitz RL. Detection of a poorly functioning malpositioned kidney with single ectopic ureter in girls with urinary dribbling: imaging evaluation in five patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164(4):957–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Itoh K. 99mTc-MAG3: review of pharmacokinetics, clinical application to renal diseases and quantification of renal function. Ann Nucl Med. 2001;15(3):179–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lagomarsino E, Orellana P, Munoz J, Velasquez C, Cavagnaro F, Valdes F. Captopril scintigraphy in the study of arterial hypertension in pediatrics. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19(1):66–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Prasad SR, Dalrymple NC, Surabhi VR. Cross-sectional imaging evaluation of renal masses. Radiol Clin North Am. 2008;46(1):95–111. vi-vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Townsend RR, Cohen DL, Katholi R, Swan SK, Davies BE, Bensel K, et al. Safety of intravenous gadolinium (Gd-BOPTA) infusion in patients with renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36(6):1207–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Prince MR, Arnoldus C, Frisoli JK. Nephrotoxicity of high-dose gadolinium compared with iodinated contrast. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1996;6(1):162–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Briguori C, Colombo A, Airoldi F, Melzi G, Michev I, Carlino M, et al. Gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing coronary artery procedures. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2006;67(2):175–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sam 2nd AD, Morasch MD, Collins J, Song G, Chen R, Pereles FS. Safety of gadolinium contrast angiography in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38(2):313–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Thomsen HS, Almen T, Morcos SK. Gadolinium-containing contrast media for radiographic examinations: a position paper. Eur Radiol. 2002;12(10):2600–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Marckmann P, Skov L, Rossen K, Dupont A, Damholt MB, Heaf JG, et al. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: suspected causative role of gadodiamide used for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(9):2359–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sadowski EA, Bennett LK, Chan MR, Wentland AL, Garrett AL, Garrett RW, et al. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: risk factors and incidence estimation. Radiology. 2007;243(1):148–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ersoy H, Rybicki FJ. Biochemical safety profiles of gadolinium-based extracellular contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;26(5):1190–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Grattan-Smith JD, Little SB, Jones RA. MR urography in children: how we do it. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38 Suppl 1:S3–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ehammer T, Riccabona M, Maier E. High resolution MR for evaluation of lower urogenital tract malformations in infants and children: feasibility and preliminary experiences. Eur J Radiol. 2011;78(3):388–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Figueroa VH, Chavhan GB, Oudjhane K, Farhat W. Utility of MR urography in children suspected of having ectopic ureter. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44:956–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Grattan-Smith JD. MR urography: anatomy and physiology. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(2):S275–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Zhang JL, Morrell G, Rusinek H, Sigmund EE, Chandarana H, Lerman LO, et al. New magnetic resonance imaging methods in nephrology. Kidney Int. 2014;85(4):768–78.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Alon US, Ganapathy S. Should renal ultrasonography be done routinely in children with first urinary tract infection? Clin Pediatr. 1999;38(1):21–5.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Miron D, Daas A, Sakran W, Lumelsky D, Koren A, Horovitz Y. Is omitting post urinary-tract-infection renal ultrasound safe after normal antenatal ultrasound? An observational study. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(6):502–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Homsy YL, Saad F, Laberge I, Williot P, Pison C. Transitional hydronephrosis of the newborn and infant. J Urol. 1990;144(2 Pt 2):579–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Dejter Jr SW, Gibbons MD. The fate of infant kidneys with fetal hydronephrosis but initially normal postnatal sonography. J Urol. 1989;142(2 Pt 2):661–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lee RS, Cendron M, Kinnamon DD, Nguyen HT. Antenatal hydronephrosis as a predictor of postnatal outcome: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):586–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Yoshioka K, Takemura T, Hattori S. Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen: primary structure, expression and role in health and disease. Nephron. 2002;90(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    van Eerde AM, Meutgeert MH, de Jong TP, Giltay JC. Vesico-ureteral reflux in children with prenatally detected hydronephrosis: a systematic review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29(4):463–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Chauvin NA, Epelman M, Victoria T, Johnson AM. Complex genitourinary abnormalities on fetal MRI: imaging findings and approach to diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199(2):W222–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wille S, von Knobloch R, Klose KJ, Heidenreich A, Hofmann R. Magnetic resonance urography in pediatric urology. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2003;37(1):16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Zerin JM, Baker DR, Casale JA. Single-system ureteroceles in infants and children: imaging features. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30(3):139–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Jones RA, Perez-Brayfield MR, Kirsch AJ, Grattan-Smith JD. Renal transit time with MR urography in children. Radiology. 2004;233(1):41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Grattan-Smith JD, Perez-Bayfield MR, Jones RA, Little S, Broecker B, Smith EA, et al. MR imaging of kidneys: functional evaluation using F-15 perfusion imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2003;33(5):293–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Shokeir AA, Provoost AP, el-Azab M, Dawaba M, Nijman RJ RJ. Renal Doppler ultrasound in children with obstructive uropathy: effect of intravenous normal saline fluid load and furosemide. J Urol. 1996;156(4):1455–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dillon E, Ryall A. A 10 year audit of antenatal ultrasound detection of renal disease. Br J Radiol. 1998;71(845):497–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Singh I, Sharma D, Singh N, Jain BK, Minocha VR. Hydronephrotic obstructed kidney mimicking a congenital multicystic kidney: case report with review of literature. Int Urol Nephrol. 2002;34(2):179–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Fernbach SK, Feinstein KA, Spencer K, Lindstrom CA. Ureteral duplication and its complications. Radiographics. 1997;17(1):109–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Avni FE, Nicaise N, Hall M, Janssens F, Collier F, Matos C, et al. The role of MR imaging for the assessment of complicated duplex kidneys in children: preliminary report. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31(4):215–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schulman CC. The single ectopic ureter. Eur Urol. 1976;2(2):64–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Berrocal T, Pinilla I, Gutierrez J, Prieto C, de Pablo L, Del Hoyo ML. Mild hydronephrosis in newborns and infants: can ultrasound predict the presence of vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22(1):91–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Foresman WH, Hulbert Jr WC, Rabinowitz R. Does urinary tract ultrasonography at hospitalization for acute pyelonephritis predict vesicoureteral reflux? J Urol. 2001;165(6 Pt 2):2232–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Evans ED, Meyer JS, Harty MP, Bellah RD. Assessment of increase in renal pelvic size on post-void sonography as a predictor of vesicoureteral reflux. Pediatr Radiol. 1999;29(4):291–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Blane CE, DiPietro MA, Zerin JM, Sedman AB, Bloom DA. Renal sonography is not a reliable screening examination for vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol. 1993;150(2 Pt 2):752–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Aboutaleb H, Bolduc S, Bagli DJ, Khoury AE. Correlation of vesicoureteral reflux with degree of hydronephrosis and the impact of antireflux surgery. J Urol. 2003;170(4 Pt 2):1560–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kääriäinen H, Jääskeläinen J, Kivisaari L, Koskimies O, Norio R. Dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease in children: classification by intravenous pyelography, ultrasound, and computed tomography. Pediatr Radiol. 1988;18(1):45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mercado-Deane MG, Beeson JE, John SD. US of renal insufficiency in neonates. Radiographics. 2002;22(6):1429–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Gagnadoux MF, Habib R, Levy M, Brunelle F, Broyer M. Cystic renal diseases in children. Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp. 1989;18:33–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Avni FE, Guissard G, Hall M, Janssen F, DeMaertelaer V, Rypens F. Hereditary polycystic kidney diseases in children: changing sonographic patterns through childhood. Pediatr Radiol. 2002;32(3):169–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Fick GM, Duley IT, Johnson AM, Strain JD, Manco-Johnson ML, Gabow PA. The spectrum of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in children. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1994;4(9):1654–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Epelman M, Victoria T, Meyers KE, Chauvin N, Servaes S, Darge K. Postnatal imaging of neonates with prenatally diagnosed genitourinary abnormalities: a practical approach. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42(1):S124–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Grantham JJ, Torres VE, Chapman AB, Guay-Woodford LM, Bae KT, King Jr BF, et al. Volume progression in polycystic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(20):2122–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Fick-Brosnahan G, Johnson AM, Strain JD, Gabow PA. Renal asymmetry in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;34(4):639–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Chung EM, Conran RM, Schroeder JW, Rohena-Quinquilla IR, Rooks VJ. From the radiologic pathology archives: pediatric polycystic kidney disease and other ciliopathies: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2014;34(1):155–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rahbari-Oskoui F, Mittal A, Mittal P, Chapman A. Renal relevant radiology: radiologic imaging in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(2):406–15.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Elzouki AY, al-Suhaibani H, Mirza K, al-Sowailem AM. Thin-section computed tomography scans detect medullary cysts in patients believed to have juvenile nephronophthisis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1996;27(2):216–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Dahan K, Fuchshuber A, Adamis S, Smaers M, Kroiss S, Loute G, et al. Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy and autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease type 2: two facets of the same disease? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12(11):2348–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sampson JR, Maheshwar MM, Aspinwall R, Thompson P, Cheadle JP, Ravine D, et al. Renal cystic disease in tuberous sclerosis: role of the polycystic kidney disease 1 gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;61(4):843–51.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ewalt DH, Sheffield E, Sparagana SP, Delgado MR, Roach ES. Renal lesion growth in children with tuberous sclerosis complex. J Urol. 1998;160(1):141–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Al-Saleem T, Wessner LL, Scheithauer BW, Patterson K, Roach ES, Dreyer SJ, et al. Malignant tumors of the kidney, brain, and soft tissues in children and young adults with the tuberous sclerosis complex. Cancer. 1998;83(10):2208–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Roach ES, DiMario FJ, Kandt RS, Northrup H. Tuberous sclerosis consensus conference: recommendations for diagnostic evaluation. National Tuberous Sclerosis Association. J Child Neurol. 1999;14(6):401–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Jakobsson B, Soderlundh S, Berg U. Diagnostic significance of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in urinary tract infection. Arch Dis Child. 1992;67(11):1338–42.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Benador D, Benador N, Slosman D, Mermillod B, Girardin E. Are younger children at highest risk of renal sequelae after pyelonephritis? Lancet. 1997;349(9044):17–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Majd M, Rushton HG, Jantausch B, Wiedermann BL. Relationship among vesicoureteral reflux, P-fimbriated Escherichia coli, and acute pyelonephritis in children with febrile urinary tract infection. J Pediatr. 1991;119(4):578–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Majd M, Nussbaum Blask AR, Markle BM, Shalaby-Rana E, Pohl HG, Park JS, et al. Acute pyelonephritis: comparison of diagnosis with 99mTc-DMSA, SPECT, spiral CT, MR imaging, and power Doppler US in an experimental pig model. Radiology. 2001;218(1):101–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mastin ST, Drane WE, Iravani A. Tc-99m DMSA SPECT imaging in patients with acute symptoms or history of UTI. Comparison with ultrasonography. Clin Nucl Med. 1995;20(5):407–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hitzel A, Liard A, Vera P, Manrique A, Menard JF, Dacher JN. Color and power Doppler sonography versus DMSA scintigraphy in acute pyelonephritis and in prediction of renal scarring. J Nucl Med. 2002;43(1):27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ataei N, Madani A, Habibi R, Khorasani M. Evaluation of acute pyelonephritis with DMSA scans in children presenting after the age of 5 years. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20(10):1439–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wang YT, Chiu NT, Chen MJ, Huang JJ, Chou HH, Chiou YY. Correlation of renal ultrasonographic findings with inflammatory volume from dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scans in children with acute pyelonephritis. J Urol. 2005;173(1):190–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Levtchenko EN, Lahy C, Levy J, Ham HR, Piepsz A. Role of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy in the diagnosis of culture negative pyelonephritis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2001;16(6):503–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Arnold AJ, Brownless SM, Carty HM, Rickwood AM. Detection of renal scarring by DMSA scanning–an experimental study. J Pediatr Surg. 1990;25(4):391–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Stokland E, Hellstrom M, Jakobsson B, Sixt R. Imaging of renal scarring. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1999;88(431):13–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Goldraich NP, Goldraich IH. Update on dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning in children with urinary tract infection. Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9(2):221–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Weiser AC, Amukele SA, Leonidas JC, Palmer LS. The role of gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for children with suspected acute pyelonephritis. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2308–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Practice parameter: the diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of the initial urinary tract infection in febrile infants and young children. Pediatrics. 1999;103(4):843–52.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Williams GJ, Wei L, Lee A, Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3, CD001534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hoberman A, Charron M, Hickey RW, Baskin M, Kearney DH, Wald ER. Imaging studies after a first febrile urinary tract infection in young children. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(3):195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hansson S, Dhamey M, Sigstrom O, Sixt R, Stokland E, Wennerstrom M, et al. Dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy instead of voiding cystourethrography for infants with urinary tract infection. J Urol. 2004;172(3):1071–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Faubel S, Patel NU, Lockhart ME, Cadnapaphornchai MA. Renal relevant radiology: use of ultrasonography in patients with AKI. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(2):382–94.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hiraoka M, Hori C, Tsuchida S, Tsukahara H, Sudo M. Ultrasonographic findings of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Am J Nephrol. 1996;16(2):154–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kenney PJ, Brinsko RE, Patel DV, Spitzer RE, Farrar FM. Sonography of the kidneys in hemolytic uremic syndrome. Invest Radiol. 1986;21(7):547–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Rosenfield AT, Siegel NJ. Renal parenchymal disease: histopathologic-sonographic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1981;137(4):793–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stanley JH, Cornella R, Loevinger E, Schabel SI, Curry NS. Sonography of systemic lupus nephritis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1984;142(6):1165–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Di Fiori JL, Rodrigue D, Kaptein EM, Ralls PW. Diagnostic sonography of HIV-associated nephropathy: new observations and clinical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171(3):713–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pozniak MA, Kelcz F, Dodd 3rd GD. Renal transplant ultrasound: imaging and Doppler. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1991;12(4):319–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Surratt JT, Siegel MJ, Middleton WD. Sonography of complications in pediatric renal allografts. Radiographics. 1990;10(4):687–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Nixon JN, Biyyam DR, Stanescu L, Phillips GS, Finn LS, Parisi MT. Imaging of pediatric renal transplants and their complications: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 2013;33(5):1227–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Herz DB, McLorie GA, Hafez AT, Rodgers-Herz C, El-Ghoneimi A, Shuckett B, et al. High resolution ultrasound characterization of early allograft hemodynamics in pediatric living related renal transplantation. J Urol. 2001;166(5):1853–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Gainza FJ, Minguela I, Lopez-Vidaur I, Ruiz LM, Lampreabe I. Evaluation of complications due to percutaneous renal biopsy in allografts and native kidneys with color-coded Doppler sonography. Clin Nephrol. 1995;43(5):303–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Slovis TL, Babcock DS, Hricak H, Han BK, Rose G, McEnery P, et al. Renal transplant rejection: sonographic evaluation in children. Radiology. 1984;153(3):659–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Sharfuddin A. Renal relevant radiology: imaging in kidney transplantation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(2):416–29.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nankivell BJ, Cohn DA, Spicer ST, Evans SG, Chapman JR, Gruenewald SM. Diagnosis of kidney transplant obstruction using Mag3 diuretic renography. Clin Transplant. 2001;15(1):11–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Goodear M, Barratt L, Wycherley A. Intraperitoneal urine leak in a patient with a renal transplant on Tc-99m MAG3 imaging. Clin Nucl Med. 1998;23(11):789–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Tulchinsky M, Malpani AR, Eggli DF. Diagnosis of urinoma by MAG3 scintigraphy in a renal transplant patient. Clin Nucl Med. 1995;20(1):80–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Palmer JS, Donaher ER, O'Riordan MA, Dell KM. Diagnosis of pediatric urolithiasis: role of ultrasound and computerized tomography. J Urol. 2005;174(4 Pt 1):1413–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Nayir A, Kadioglu A, Sirin A, Emre S, Tonguc E, Bilge I. Causes of increased renal medullary echogenicity in Turkish children. Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9(6):729–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Akhan O, Ozmen MN, Coskun M, Ozen S, Akata D, Saatci U. Systemic oxalosis: pathognomonic renal and specific extrarenal findings on US and CT. Pediatr Radiol. 1995;25(1):15–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Shultz PK, Strife JL, Strife CF, McDaniel JD. Hyperechoic renal medullary pyramids in infants and children. Radiology. 1991;181(1):163–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Morey AF, Bruce JE, McAninch JW. Efficacy of radiographic imaging in pediatric blunt renal trauma. J Urol. 1996;156(6):2014–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Stein JP, Kaji DM, Eastham J, Freeman JA, Esrig D, Hardy BE. Blunt renal trauma in the pediatric population: indications for radiographic evaluation. Urology. 1994;44(3):406–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Dennery MP, Rushton HG, Belman AB. Sonography for the detection and follow-up of primary nonsarcomatous bladder tumors in children. Urology. 2002;59(1):119–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Patel K, Mahboubi S, Sherman NH, Rosenberg HK. Diagnosis and follow-up of children with Wilms’ tumor: correlative study of ultrasound and computed tomography. Report of eighteen cases. Ann Radiol (Paris). 1991;34(6–7):376–82.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Wootton-Gorges SL, Albano EA, Riggs JM, Ihrke H, Rumack CM, Strain JD. Chest radiography versus chest CT in the evaluation for pulmonary metastases in patients with Wilms' tumor: a retrospective review. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30(8):533–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Hoffer FA. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal masses in the pediatric patient. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2005;26(4):212–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Daw NC, Kauffman WM, Bodner SM, Pratt CB, Hoffer FA. Patterns of abdominal relapse and role of sonography in Wilms tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;19(2):107–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Choyke PL, Siegel MJ, Craft AW, Green DM, DeBaun MR. Screening for Wilms tumor in children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or idiopathic hemihypertrophy. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1999;32(3):196–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ng YY, Healy JC, Vincent JM, Kingston JE, Armstrong P, Reznek RH. The radiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood: a review of 80 cases. Clin Radiol. 1994;49(9):594–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Brun P, Kchouk H, Mouchet B, Baudouin V, Raynaud A, Loirat C, et al. Value of Doppler ultrasound for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 1997;11(1):27–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Broekhuizen-de Gast HS, Tiel-van Buul MM, Van Beek EJ. Severe hypertension in children with renovascular disease. Clin Nucl Med. 2001;26(7):606–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Garel L, Dubois J, Robitaille P, Russo P, Filiatrault D, Grignon A, et al. Renovascular hypertension in children: curability predicted with negative intrarenal Doppler US results. Radiology. 1995;195(2):401–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Williams GJ, Macaskill P, Chan SF, Karplus TE, Yung W, Hodson EM, et al. Comparative accuracy of renal duplex sonographic parameters in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis: paired and unpaired analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(3):798–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Enriquez G, Castello F, Sousa P, Aso C, Lucaya J. Increased cortical echogenicity of the normal kidney in infants with unilateral renal artery stenosis: report of two cases. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16(1):59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Hibbert J, Howlett DC, Greenwood KL, MacDonald LM, Saunders AJ. The ultrasound appearances of neonatal renal vein thrombosis. Br J Radiol. 1997;70(839):1191–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Lalmand B, Avni EF, Nasr A, Ketelbant P, Struyven J. Perinatal renal vein thrombosis. Sonographic demonstration. J Ultrasound Med. 1990;9(8):437–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Brill PW, Mitty HA, Strauss L. Renal vein thrombosis: a cause of intrarenal calcification in the newborn. Pediatr Radiol. 1977;6(3):172–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Winyard PJ, Bharucha T, De Bruyn R, Dillon MJ, van't Hoff W, Trompeter RS, et al. Perinatal renal venous thrombosis: presenting renal length predicts outcome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006;91(4):F273–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Lebowitz JM, Belman AB. Simultaneous idiopathic adrenal hemorrhage and renal vein thrombosis in the newborn. J Urol. 1983;129(3):574–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Bennett WG, Wood BP. Radiological case of the month. Left renal vein thrombosis and left adrenal hemorrhage. Am J Dis Child. 1991;145(11):1299–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Bessell-Browne R, O'Malley ME. CT of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: risk of adverse events with i.v. administration of nonionic contrast material. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(4):970–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Greenblatt DY, Shenker Y, Chen H. The utility of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in patients with pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15(3):900–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Van Der Horst-Schrivers AN, Jager PL, Boezen HM, Schouten JP, Kema IP, Links TP. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in localising phaeochromocytomas–experience and meta-analysis. Anticancer Res. 2006;26(2B):1599–604.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Mackenzie IS, Gurnell M, Balan KK, Simpson H, Chatterjee K, Brown MJ. The use of 18-fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in the assessment of metaiodobenzylguanidine-negative phaeochromocytoma. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157(4):533–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric RadiologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations