Clinical Evaluation of the Child with Suspected Renal Disease
Renal disease in children may present with overt symptoms such as hematuria or oliguria. However, on many occasions, symptoms can be mild or nonspecific. Increasingly many of the congenital anomalies of the renal tract are detected by antenatal ultrasonography. A number of children are referred following detection of abnormality during routine assessment or following screening. A detailed history which includes antenatal, family, and medication history is an essential aspect of evaluation of every child with renal disease. A child with renal disease should have a thorough clinical examination including assessment of growth, nutrition, and hydration. Awareness of genetic and multisystem diseases which involve the kidneys is important.
KeywordsInfective Endocarditis Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycystic Kidney Disease Posterior Urethral Valve
- 9.McGee H. On food and cooking: the science and lore of the kitchen. New York: Simon and Schuster; 1997. p. 194.Google Scholar
- 16.National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2004;114(2 Suppl 4th Report):555–76.Google Scholar
- 28.Nash D. The development of micturition control with special reference to enuresis. Ann R Coll Surg Eng. 1949;5:318–44.Google Scholar