Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Carcinogenesis

  • I. Bernard Weinstein
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_843-2

Definition

Carcinogenesis is the process by which cancer develops in various tissues in the body.

Characteristics

In most cases, carcinogenesis occurs via a stepwise process that can encompass a major fraction of the lifespan (multistep development). These progressive stages often include hyperplasia, dysplasia, metaplasia, benign tumors, and then, eventually, malignant tumors. Malignant tumors can also undergo further progression to become more invasive and metastatic, autonomous of hormones and growth factors, and resistant to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Causes

Known causes of carcinogenesis include various chemicals or mixture of chemicals present in several sources. This includes cigarette smoke; diet; workplace or general environment; ultraviolet and ionizing radiation; specific viruses, bacteria, and parasites; and endogenous factors (oxidative DNA damage, DNA depurination, deamination). According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 69 agents, mixtures,...

Keywords

Tumor Suppressor Gene Stepwise Process Carcinogenic Process Specific Hormone Covalent Adduct 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Kitchin KT (ed) (1999) Carcinogenicity, testing predicting and interpreting chemical effects. Marcel Dekker, New York/BaselGoogle Scholar
  2. Weinstein IB (2000) Disorders in cell circuitry during multistage carcinogenesis: the role of homeostasis. Carcinogenesis 22:857–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Weinstein IB, Santella RM, Perera FP (1995a) Molecular biology and molecular epidemiology of cancer. In: Greenwald P, Kramer BS, Weed DL (eds) Cancer prevention and control. Marcell Dekker, New York, pp 83–110Google Scholar
  4. Weinstein IB, Carothers AM, Santella RM et al (1995b) Molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and multistage carcinogenesis. In: Mendelsohn J, Howley PM, Israel MA, Liotta LA (eds) The molecular basis of cancer. Saunders, WB, Philadelphia, pp 59–85Google Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Mutagenic. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2412. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3909Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Bernard Weinstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA