iPS cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from somatic cells by the forced expression of certain transcription factors.
Reprogramming and iPS Cells
In 1962, John Gurdon transplanted amphibian somatic cell nuclei into enucleated oocytes which provided the first experimental evidence of reprogramming. Later, cell fusion experiments with embryonic stem (ES) cellsalso showed that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state. In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka and his team demonstrated that transcription factors can replace oocyte or ES cell environment and induce reprogramming. Out of 24 candidate genes, a combination of four factors, Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc was sufficient to produce ES cell-like colonies from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts. These data demonstrated that pluripotency could be induced in somatic cells by the forced expression of these four...
KeywordsAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cell Reprogram Cell Transplantation Therapy Somatic Cell Reprogram
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