Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

iPS Cells

  • Açelya Yilmazer Aktuna
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7228-1



iPS cells are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from somatic cells by the forced expression of certain transcription factors.


Reprogramming and iPS Cells

In 1962, John Gurdon transplanted amphibian somatic cell nuclei into enucleated oocytes which provided the first experimental evidence of reprogramming. Later, cell fusion experiments with embryonic stem (ES) cellsalso showed that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state. In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka and his team demonstrated that transcription factors can replace oocyte or ES cell environment and induce reprogramming. Out of 24 candidate genes, a combination of four factors, Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc was sufficient to produce ES cell-like colonies from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts. These data demonstrated that pluripotency could be induced in somatic cells by the forced expression of these four...


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cell Reprogram Cell Transplantation Therapy Somatic Cell Reprogram 
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See Also

  1. (2012) C-Myc. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 886. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1232Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Insertional mutagenesis. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1873. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3073Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Retrovirus. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 3296–3297. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5084Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering Department, Engineering FacultyAnkara UniversityGolbasiTurkey