Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Exosomal miRNA

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7227-1

Synonyms

Definition

Exosomes, shuttling from donor cells to recipient cells, are cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) with 30–100 nm in diameter and dish- or classic cup-shaped morphology. Exosomes transport bioactive cargo carrying selective proteins, lipids, DNA, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and small and large noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNA embedded in exosomes is termed as exosomal miRNA. Exosomal miRNAs regulate diverse biological processes in recipient cells.

Characteristics

Biogenesis of Exosomes and Exosomal miRNA Packaging

Exosomes play a fundamental role in cell-cell communication and have been found in various cell types, especially in tumor cells. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 63, CD81, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, Alix (ALG-2-interacting protein X), and TSG101 (tumor susceptibility gene 101) serve as exosomal marker proteins. Exosomes are derived from the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also known as...

Keywords

Recipient Cell Extracellular Vesicle Exosome Secretion Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell Line Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Kosaka N et al (2013) Exosomal tumor-suppressive microRNAs as novel cancer therapy “exocure” is another choice for cancer treatment. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 65(3):376–382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Miller IV, Grunewald TG (2015) Tumor-derived exosomes: tiny envelopes for big stories. Biol Cell 107:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Squadrito ML et al (2014) Endogenous RNAs modulate microRNA sorting to exosomes and transfer to accept cells. Cell Rep 8(5):1432–1446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ye SB et al (2014) Tumor-derived exosomes promote tumor progression and T-cell dysfunction through the regulation of enriched exosomal microRNAs in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oncotarget 5(14):5439–5452PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Zhang J et al (2015) Exosome and exosomal microRNA: trafficking, sorting, and function. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 13(1):17–24PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) P53. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2747. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4331Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Biological EngineeringCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cancer BiologyBeckman Research Institute of City of HopeDuarteUSA