Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7178-3

Synonyms

Definition

Growth hormone-releasing hormone is a peptide hormone secreted by the hypothalamus. Upon binding to GHRH receptors on somatotrophs in the pituitary gland, GHRH regulates the synthesis and release of growth hormone (GH) in the anterior pituitary gland. GH acts directly on GH receptors in various peripheral tissues, whereas in the liver it stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1), a potent mitogen for various cell types including tumors. GHRH is a crucial neuroendocrine component of the neuroendocrine axis constituted by hypothalamic GHRH-pituitary GH and hepatic IGF-1 and is essential for its function. GHRH can also act as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor in human cancers.

Characteristics

The existence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) was first suggested in 1961 and the identification of the structure of this 44-amino-acid peptide was made in 1981 from...

Keywords

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Endometrial Carcinoma Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Bone Sarcoma Gastric Inhibitory Peptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Barabutis N, Schally A (2008a) Antioxidant activity of growth hormone releasing hormone antagonists in LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(51):20470–20475CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Barabutis N, Schally A (2008b) Knocking down gene expression of growth hormone releasing hormone inhibits proliferation of human cancer cell lines. Br J Cancer 98(11):1790–1796CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Barabutis N, Schally A (2010) Growth hormone releasing hormone: extrapituitary effects in physiology and pathology. Cell Cycle 9(20):4110–4116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barabutis N, Tsellou E, Schally A, Kouloheri S, Kalofoutis A, Kiaris H (2007) Stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells by a transfected splice variant of growth hormone releasing hormone receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(13):5575–5579CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Schally A (2008) New approaches to the therapy of cancer tumors based on peptide analogues. Horm Metab Res 40(5):315–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Frank Reidy Research Center for BioelectricsOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA