Fibrosis and Cancer
Fibrosis is broadly defined as an accumulation of connective tissue generally in the presence of a low degree of inflammation. This is most often an accumulation of elevated levels of mature collagen fibers in connective tissue stroma, but can include accumulation of other extracellular matrix components such as elastin, proteoglycans, and fibrogenic connective tissue producing cells. Accumulation of collagens requires elevated synthesis of collagen itself, but in addition stabilization of collagen fibers requires cross-linking to impart structural integrity typical of mature collagens. Biosynthetic cross-linking depends on the lysyl oxidase enzyme family which catalyzes oxidative deamination of lysine residues of collagen and elastin in the extracellular environment, concerting the e-amino group of lysine residues to generate an aldehyde (allysine- or α-amino-d-adipic semialdehyde residues). The aldehydes then spontaneously react with neighboring lysine or allysine residues...
KeywordsOral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lysyl Oxidase Tumor Suppressor Activity Stromal Reaction Connective Tissue Stroma
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