Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Stem Cell Imaging

  • Francis L. Martin
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7163-3


Unspecialized and undifferentiated stem cells (SCs; synonyms multipotent cells; pluripotent cells; progenitor cells; undifferentiated cells; unipotent cells) are characterized by the ability to self-renew via mitosis (symmetric division). Through this cell division, they also give rise to commitment–driven daughter cells (asymmetric division), which undergo differentiation to a functional phenotype. Many tissues are characterized by a regenerative capacity suggesting the in situ presence of SCs, but their location is often putative and inferred because of the lack of robust biomarkers. As a consequence, imaging SCs especially in human tissues remains challenging and often inconsistent.


SCs are considered to be mostly quiescent but retain the ability to act as progenitors for multiple (multipotential) or particular (unipotential) functional phenotypes. They do this via the process of cellular differentiation post-asymmetric cell division, which gives rise to...


Cancer Stem Cell Hair Follicle Side Population Paneth Cell Crypt Base 
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  1. German MJ, Pollock HM, Zhao B, Tobin MJ, Hammiche A, Bentley A, Cooper LJ, Martin FL, Fullwood NJ (2006) Characterization of putative stem cell populations in the cornea using synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:2417–2421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kelly JG, Nakamura T, Kinoshita S, Fullwood NJ, Martin FL (2010) Evidence for a stem-cell lineage in corneal squamous cell carcinoma using synchrotron-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Analyst 135:3120–3125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Martin FL, German MJ, Wit E, Fearn T, Ragavan N, Pollock HM (2007) Identifying variables responsible for clustering in discriminant analysis of data from infrared microspectroscopy of a biological sample. J Comput Biol 14:1176–1184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Martin FL, Kelly JG, Llabjani V, Martin-Hirsch PL, Patel II, Trevisan J, Fullwood NJ, Walsh MJ (2010) Distinguishing cell types or populations based on the computational analysis of their infrared spectra. Nat Protoc 5:1748–1760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Nakamura T, Kelly JG, Trevisan J, Cooper LJ, Bentley AJ, Carmichael PL, Scott AD, Cotte M, Susini J, Martin-Hirsch PL, Kinoshita S, Fullwood NJ, Martin FL (2010) Microspectroscopy of spectral biomarkers associated with human corneal stem cells. Mol Vis 16:359–368PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Patel II, Trevisan J, Singh PB, Nicholson CM, Krishnan RK, Matanhelia SS, Martin FL (2011a) Segregation of human prostate tissues classified high-risk (UK) versus low-risk (India) for adenocarcinoma using Fourier-transform infrared or Raman microspectroscopy coupled with discriminant analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem 401:969–982CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Patel II, Trevisan J, Evans G, Llabjani V, Martin-Hirsch PL, Stringfellow HF, Martin FL (2011b) High contrast images of uterine tissue derived using Raman microspectroscopy with the empty modelling approach of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares. Analyst 136:4950–4959CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Trevisan J, Angelov PP, Carmichael PL, Scott AD, Martin FL (2012) Extracting biological information with computational analysis of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) biospectroscopy datasets: current practices to future perspectives. Analyst 137:3202–3215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Walsh MJ, Fellous TG, Hammiche A, Lin W-R, Fullwood NJ, Grude O, Bahrami F, Nicholson JM, Cotte M, Susini J, Pollock HM, Brittan M, Martin-Hirsch PL, Alison MR, Martin FL (2008) Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy identifies symmetric PO2- modifications as a marker of the putative stem cell region of human intestinal crypts. Stem Cells 26:108–118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Walsh MJ, Hammiche A, Fellous TG, Nicholson JM, Cotte M, Susini J, Fullwood NJ, Martin-Hirsch PL, Alison MR, Martin FL (2009) Tracking the cell hierarchy in the human intestine using biochemical signatures derived by mid-infrared microspectroscopy. Stem Cell Res 3:15–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for BiophotonicsLancaster UniversityLancasterUK