The process of programmed cell death is triggered through the photoactivation of photosensitizers in the target cells. Photosensitizers that induce tumor cell apoptosis are usually localized in organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum.
Apoptosis is a highly regulated cell death process executed by a family of caspases. Two well-established pathways, namely, extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, have been described. The extrinsic pathway involves the initial binding of ligands to the cell surface death receptors and the subsequent activation of initiator caspase-8. The intrinsic pathway involves the convergence of stress signals to the mitochondria, leading to mitochondria membrane permeabilization (MOMP), releasing of proapoptotic proteins such as cytochrome C into the cytosol, and the activation of initiator caspase-9. Apoptotic signals from these two activation pathways...
KeywordsGolgi Complex Cell Death Process Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization Proapoptotic Signal Cell Surface Death Receptor
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