Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Exosome

  • Peter Kurre
  • Ben Doron
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7130-1

Synonyms

Definition

Exosomes are membrane-enclosed vesicles that are derived from the endocytic compartment and released at the plasma membrane into the extracellular space. The plasma membrane is not the source of the lipid bilayer of exosomes; rather, exosomes originate from luminal pinocytosis of early endosomes. These vesicles range from 30 nm to 100 nm in diameter and traffic cargo in an autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine fashion. Exosomes contain a subset of biologically active macromolecules present in the cell: protein, lipids, and multiple RNA species. The composition of exosomal cargo is unique to the producing cells, giving healthy and diseased cells a specific exosomal signature. The trafficking of these molecules into neighboring cells alters their behavior, a process involved in neuronal signaling, fetal development, tissue homeostasis and repair, adaptive immunity, and cancer progression.

Characteristics

Mechanism

In contrast to the shedding of...

Keywords

Recipient Cell Early Endosome Strong Shearing Force Provide Growth Factor Exosome Uptake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Lötvall J, Hill AF et al (2014) Minimal experimental requirements for definition of extracellular vesicles and their functions: a position statement from the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles. J Extracell Vesicles 3. doi:10.3402/jev.v3.26913Google Scholar
  2. Mittelbrunn M, Vicente Manzanares M, Sánchez-Madrid F (2015) Organizing polarized delivery of exosomes at synapses. Traffic. doi:10.1111/tra.12258Google Scholar
  3. Roma-Rodriguez C, Fernandes AR, Baptisa PV (2014) Exosome in tumour microenvironment: overview of the crosstalk between normal and cancer cells. Biomed Res Int. doi:10.1155/2014/179486. Epub 2014 May 21Google Scholar
  4. Villarroya-Beltri C, Baixauli F et al (2014) Sorting it out: regulation of exosome loading. Semin Cancer Biol (28) doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2014.04.009Google Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Adaptive immunity. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 42–43. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_74Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Biomarkers. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 408–409. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6601Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Checkpoint. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 754–755. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1049Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Cholesterol. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 821. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1116Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Cytokine. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1051. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1473Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Extracellular matrix. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1362. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2067Google Scholar
  7. (2012) ICAMs. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1803. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2938Google Scholar
  8. (2012) Integrin. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1884. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3084Google Scholar
  9. (2012) Lymphocytes. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2123. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3455Google Scholar
  10. (2012) Messenger RNA. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2250. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6616Google Scholar
  11. (2012) Mutation. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2412. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3911Google Scholar
  12. (2012) Phosphoinositides. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2867. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4535Google Scholar
  13. (2012) Plasma membrane. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2900. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4599Google Scholar
  14. (2012) Rab. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3133. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4890Google Scholar
  15. (2012) RISC. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3309. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5110Google Scholar
  16. (2012) Signal-transducer proteins. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3411. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5299Google Scholar
  17. (2012) Stromal cells. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3544. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5535Google Scholar
  18. (2012) Transcription factor. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3752. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5901Google Scholar
  19. (2012) Ubiquitin. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3825. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6083Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Oregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA