Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7126-15

Definition

Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is a member of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) family, which in humans has four members that are encoded by four different genes.
  • IAP

  • Placental AP

  • Placental-like AP

  • Tissue-nonspecific AP (expressed mainly in the liver, bone, and kidney)

IAP is a membrane-bound glycoprotein enzyme exclusively produced in the small intestine and expressed in villus-associated enterocytes. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of monophosphate esters and transphosphorylation reactions on a wide spectrum of substrates (e.g., phosphatidates with different fatty acyl chains, nucleotides phosphate residues, inorganic phosphate from polyphosphates in diet).

Characteristics

Structure

The IAP gene maps to chromosome 2q34–37 along with the loci for placental and placental-like alkaline phosphatase and produces a 528-amino acid protein. It is a homodimeric enzyme, and each monomer contains five cysteine residues and three metal ions (two Zn++ and one Mg++).

Gene Regulation

The...

Keywords

Sodium Butyrate Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Defense Factor Placental Alkaline Phosphatase Intracellular Lipid Droplet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Bates JM, Akerlund J, Mittge E, Guillemin K (2007) Intestinal alkaline phosphatase detoxifies lipopolysaccharide and prevents inflammation in zebrafish in response to the gut microbiota. Cell Host Microbe 2:371–382CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Goldberg RF, Austen WG Jr, Zhang X, Munene G, Mostafa G, Biswas S, McCormack M, Eberlin KR, Nguyen JT, Tatlidede HS, Warren HS, Narisawa S, Millán JL, Hodin RA (2008) Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a gut mucosal defense factor maintained by enteral nutrition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3551–3556CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Malo MS, Alam SN, Mostafa G, Zeller SJ, Johnson PV, Mohammad N, Chen KT, Moss AK, Ramasamy S, Faruqui A, Hodin S, Malo PS, Ebrahimi F, Biswas B, Narisawa S, Millán JL, Warren HS, Kaplan JB, Kitts CL, Hohmann EL, Hodin RA (2010) Intestinal alkaline phosphatase preserves the normal homeostasis of gut microbiota. Gut 59:1476–1484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Narisawa S, Huang L, Iwasaki A, Hasegawa H, Alpers DH, Millán JL (2003) Accelerated fat absorption in intestinal alkaline phosphatase knockout mice. Mol Cell Biol 23:7525–7530CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Vaishnava S, Hooper LV (2007) Alkaline phosphatase: keeping the peace at the gut epithelial surface. Cell Host Microbe 2:365–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Histone Acetylation. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1697. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2750Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Homeobox. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1721. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2787Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Tumor Necrosis Factor-α. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3800. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6041Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA