Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers

  • Michael J. BaineEmail author
  • Sukhwinder Kaur
  • Aaron R. Sasson
  • Surinder K. Batra
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7119-4


Pancreatic cancer is the ninth leading cause of cancer diagnosis and fourth leading cause of cancer-associated death in the world. Pancreatic cancer biomarkers refer to cellular or biochemical mechanisms to aid in the detection, diagnosis, or prognostication of pancreatic cancer. Primarily, this term insinuates pancreatic exocrine tumors, specifically adenocarcinoma, but can be universally applied to all cancers arising within the pancreas. Additionally, the source and nature of pancreatic cancer biomarkers is not inherently defined and thus can denote any method to aid in its clinical detection or projection including but not limited to analysis of the proper tumor, tumor-surrounding tissues, implicated body secretions, and distant body fluids.


The term pancreatic cancer (PC) biomarkers can be contextually applied to many entities for multiple functions. In general terms, it refers to any biochemical detection mechanism that can be applied in PC to offer...


Pancreatic Cancer Chronic Pancreatitis Pancreatic Juice Main Pancreatic Duct Pancreatic Cancer Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. American Cancer Society (2009) Cancer facts and figures. American Cancer Society, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  2. Baine MJ, Chakraborty S, Smith LM et al (2011) Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pancreatic cancer patients identifies novel genes with potential diagnostic utility. PLoS One 6(2):e17014PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, Stewart AK, Winchester DP, Talamonti MS (2007) National failure to operate on early stage pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg 246(2):173–180PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Callery MP, Chang KJ, Fishman EK, Talamonti MS, William TL, Linehan DC (2009) Pretreatment assessment of resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer: expert consensus statement. Ann Surg Oncol 16(7):1727–1733CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chakraborty S, Baine MJ, Sasson AR, Batra SK (2011) Current status of molecular markers for early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1815(1):44–64PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chari ST, Kelly K, Hollingsworth MA et al (2015) Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: summative review. Pancreas 44(5):693–712PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Helm JF, Centeno BA, Coppola D et al (2008) Outcomes following resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: 20-year experience at a single institution. Cancer Control 15(4):288–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ishikawa O, Ohigashi H, Imaoka S et al (1999) Minute carcinoma of the pancreas measuring 1 cm or less in diameter – collective review of Japanese case reports. Hepatogastroenterology 46(25):8–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D (2011) Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 61:69–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kenner BJ, Chari ST, Cleeter DF, Go VL (2015) Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation-a white paper. Pancreas 44(5):686–692PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Moniaux N, Escande F, Porchet N, Aubert JP, Batra SK (2001) Structural organization and classification of the human mucin genes. Front Biosci 6:D1192–D1206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Moniaux N, Andrianifahanana M, Brand RE, Batra SK (2004) Multiple roles of mucins in pancreatic cancer, a lethal and challenging malignancy. Br J Cancer 91:1633–1638PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mudan S, Giakoustidis A, Thillainayagam AV, Jacob J, Stebbing J (2010) Clinical utility of circulating tumor cell measurement in the diagnosis of indeterminate lesions of the pancreas. Future Oncol 6(1):177–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Pannala R, Basu A, Petersen GM, Chari ST (2009) New-onset diabetes: a potential clue to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Lancet Oncol 10(1):88–95PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Statistics Review 1975–2006 (2011) National Cancer Institute. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2006/index.html
  16. Tsuchiya R, Noda T, Harada N et al (1986) Collective review of small carcinomas of the pancreas. Ann Surg 203(1):77–81PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Weber C (2015) Biomarkers: the challenge to find biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
  18. Wilkowski R, Thoma M, Schauer R, Wagner A, Heinemann V (2004) Effect of chemoradiotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin on locoregional control in patients with primary inoperable pancreatic cancer. World J Surg 28(10):1011–1018CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhang SY, Zhang SQ, Nagaraju GP, El-Rayes BF (2015) Biomarkers for personalized medicine in GI cancers. Cancer Lett 365(2):141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Baine
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sukhwinder Kaur
    • 2
  • Aaron R. Sasson
    • 3
  • Surinder K. Batra
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Oncology, Fred and Pamela Buffett Cancer CenterUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  4. 4.Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA