Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Hexokinase 2

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7115-1

Synonyms

Definition

Hexokinase II (also known as HK II) is an enzyme encoded by the HK II gene, located in human chromosome band 2p13. The protein product of the HK II gene is a hexokinase. HK II is a member of the hexokinase family. The hexokinase family consists of four members, that is, HK I, HK II, HK III, and HK IV. HK II phosphorylates a six-carbon sugar called hexose to a hexose phosphate. Aberrant activation of HK II has been linked with a variety of malignancies, participating as the principal functional isoform in multiple cancer cells. It also contributes to aerobic glycolysis, acting as a pivotal player in an emerging hallmark of cancer, the Warburg effect (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011). HK II is proposed to be a metabolic target for cancer therapeutic development.

Characteristics

Tissue Expression of Hexokinase II

In humans, there are four hexokinase isoforms, HK I, HK II, HK III, and HK IV, encoded by different genes and located at separate positions that are on...

Keywords

Liver Cancer Cell Myocardial Glucose Uptake Hexose Phosphate Liver Cancer Tissue Human Cancer Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Ahn KJ et al (2009) Evaluation of the role of hexokinase type II in cellular proliferation and apoptosis using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. J Nucl Med 50(9):1525–1532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  5. Warburg O (1956) On the origin of cancer cells. Science 123(3191):309–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Biological EngineeringCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA