Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Pediatric HIV/AIDS

  • Anita De Rossi
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7099-1

Definition

Pediatric HIV infection is the infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in children under 15 years of age. At the end of 2013, 3.2 million of children were estimated to be HIV infected, of whom more than 70 % live in Southern Africa. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) is the main route of pediatric HIV infection; although it primarily occurs around the time of delivery, breastfeeding is an additional route of transmission. In the absence of effective interventions to reduce MTCT, transmission rates were 15–25 % among non-breastfeeding populations in North America and Europe and 25–40 % among breastfeeding populations in resource-limited countries. In the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected children progressed more rapidly than HIV-infected adults; about one-third of perinatally HIV-infected infants progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) within 2 years of age.

The introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy...

Keywords

Pediatric HIV infection Pediatric AIDS Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) Antiretroviral therapy (ART) AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) Non-AIDS-defining malignancies (non-ADM) 
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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Viral Oncology Unit and AIDS Reference Center, Section of Oncology and Immunology, Department of Surgery, Oncology and GastroenterologyUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly