Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Saporin

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7065-6

Definition

Saporin is a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from the common soapwort (Saponaria officinalis L.). It is an enzyme that releases a particular adenine from the 28S ribosomal RNA of eukaryotic ribosomes (at position 4324 referred to rat) and thus inactivates protein biosynthesis. Saporin is a type-I-RIP, which means that it consists only of one protein chain, the A-chain, representing catalytic activity, whereas type-II-RIPs contain in addition a cell-binding domain, the B-chain. Saporin is used in a number of attempts as part of targeted toxins in cancer therapy.

Characteristics

Structure and Function

Saporin is a ribosome-inactivating plant protein (RIP) from the common soapwort (Saponaria officinalis L.), a vespertine flower belonging to the carnation family (Caryophyllaceae) (Lombardi et al. 2010). The protein can be isolated from different tissues including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits. A number of isoforms differing in a couple of amino acids have been...

Keywords

Mouse Tumor Model Endosomal Escape Eukaryotic Ribosome Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Dianthus Caryophyllus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Bachran C, Dürkop H, Sutherland M, Bachran D, Müller C, Weng A, Melzig MF, Fuchs H (2009) Inhibition of tumor growth by targeted toxins in mice is dramatically improved by Saponinum album in a synergistic way. J Immunother 32:713–725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Fuchs H, Bachran C (2011) Design of targeted protein toxins. In: Kratz F, Senter P, Steinhagen H (eds) Drug delivery in oncology – from basic research to cancer therapy. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 1443–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fuchs H, Bachran C, Li T, Heisler I, Dürkop H, Sutherland M (2007) A cleavable molecular adapter reduces side effects and concomitantly enhances efficacy in tumor treatment by targeted toxins in mice. J Control Release 117:342–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Lombardi A, Marshall RS, Savino C, Fabbrini MS, Ceriotti A (2010) Type I ribosome-inactivating proteins from Saponaria officinalis. In: Lord JM, Hartley MR (eds) Toxic plant proteins, Plant cell monographs, 18. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 55–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gilabert-Oriol R, Weng A, Mallinckrodt Bv, Melzig MF, Fuchs H, Thakur M (2014) Immunotoxins constructed with ribosome-inactivating proteins and their enhancers: a lethal cocktail with tumor specific efficacy. Curr Pharm Des 20:6584–6643Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and PathobiochemistryCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany