Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_7063-4

Definition

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxic N-glycosidases that release a particular adenine located in the universally conserved α-sarcin loop of the 28S RNA of eukaryotic ribosomes (at position 4324 referred to rat) and thus inactivate protein biosynthesis. Most of the known RIPs are produced by plants and can be divided into two groups, type I RIPs that consist only of one protein chain, the A chain, representing catalytic activity, and type II RIPs that contain in addition a cell-binding domain, the B chain. Occasionally, RIPs are also found in bacteria, fungi, algae, and some mammalian tissues, but these RIPs often exhibit other structures than type I or type II RIPs. A group of toxic enzymes from fungi that inactivate ribosomes by cleaving a single phosphodiester bond within the backbone of the 28S ribosomal RNA are sometimes also called RIPs. Ribosome-inactivating proteins are used in a number of attempts as part of targeted toxins in cancer therapy.

Characteristics...

Keywords

Plant RIPs Momordica Charantia Eukaryotic Ribosome Pokeweed Antiviral Protein Ankyrin Repeat Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Fuchs H, Bachran C (2011) Design of targeted protein toxins. In: Kratz F, Senter P, Steinhagen H (eds) Drug delivery in oncology – from basic research to cancer therapy. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 1443–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Martınez-Ruiz A, Kao R, Davies J, Martınez del Pozo Á (1999) Ribotoxins are a more widespread group of proteins within the filamentous fungi than previously believed. Toxicon 37:1549–1563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Puri M, Kaur I, Perugini MA, Gupta RC (2012) Ribosome-inactivating proteins: current status and biomedical applications. Drug Discov Today 17:774–783CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Reyes AG, Anné J, Mejía A (2012) Ribosome-inactivating proteins with an emphasis on bacterial RIPs and their potential medical applications. Future Microbiol 7:705–717CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry and PathobiochemistryCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Integrative Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa