Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

B-Raf Somatic Alterations

  • Tilman Brummer
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_705-2

Definition

Somatic alterations of the BRAF gene in cancer, either caused by point mutation or genomic rearrangement of the BRAF proto-oncogene.

Characteristics

The Ser/Thr-kinase B-Raf, a product of the human BRAF proto-oncogene, plays a pivotal role in the activation of the classical ERK/MAP kinase pathway that is involved in the control of proliferation and differentiation of various tissues. Consequently, alterations of the expression level or the activity of B-Raf are associated with various cancers. Proto-oncogenes can be converted into oncogenes by point mutations; amplifications; genomic rearrangement, e.g., translocation or inversion; or retroviral transduction. Interestingly, all four mechanisms of oncogene activation have been documented for the BRAF genes in human and/or animal tumors.

History of the BRAF Proto-oncogene

The discovery of the raf-oncogenes originates back to the isolation of the chicken Mill Hill 2 (MH2) retrovirus by Begg in 1927. Genetic studies in the...

Keywords

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Hairy Cell Leukemia BRAF Gene Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Somatic Alteration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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See Also

  1. (2012) Cardio-facial-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 666. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_857Google Scholar
  2. (2012) ERK/MAP kinase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1308. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1988Google Scholar
  3. (2012) NIH3T3 transformation assay. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2520. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4085Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Orthologue. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2661. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4263Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Transforming retroviruses. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3763. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5917Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Molekulare Medizin und ZellforschungZentrum für Biochemie und Molekulare Zellforschung (ZBMZ), Albert-Ludwigs-Universität FreiburgFreiburgGermany