Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Lung Cancer Staging

  • Anthony P. C. Yim
  • Calvin S. H. Ng
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6916-2


Accurate staging of tumors remains the cornerstone of lung cancer management and prognostication. The tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) system (TNM system) currently in use for the classification of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was first proposed more than 50 years ago by Denoix and was later adapted by the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging in 1974. Subsequently, this staging system was revised in 1986, 1997, and more recently in 2009 resulting in the 7th edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer staging.

The TNM system considers the anatomical spread of cancer by factors of tumor size and invasion, extent of lymphatic spread, and presence of metastatic disease, thereby dictating current strategies for clinical and surgical staging investigations. Emphasis is on the detection of cytological and histological spread by means of noninvasive staging, such as imaging, or invasive staging, such as endoscopic or surgical biopsy. New on the horizon include...


Positron Emission Tomography Standard Uptake Value NSCLC Patient Mediastinal Lymph Node Sentinel Node Mapping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiothoracic SurgeryChinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina