Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

  • Robert A. Gardiner
  • Mark Frydenberg
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6825-2



Historically, prostate cancer presented in an advanced form. Usually it was suspected by palpating a hard and irregular gland on digital rectal examination (DRE) and/or by visualizing bone-dense secondary deposits on radiographs (x-rays) with the diagnosis confirmed by microscopic examination of biopsied or resected tissue from a malignant prostate gland. Today, the large majority of cancers are diagnosed at a much earlier stage when the tumor is clinically localized to the prostate gland itself. However, Early Detection of prostate cancer remains contentious because of uncertainty that diagnosis will be of benefit for individual patients. Although adverse outcomes and imprecision with the detection process itself are changing, unwanted effects associated with treatment interventions and the uncertainty that these interventions will prolong and provide an acceptable quality of life persist.



Prostate Cancer Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Active Surveillance Digital Rectal Examination Develop Prostate Cancer 
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See Also

  1. (2012) 5-Alpha reductase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 147–148. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6815Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Clinical ResearchUniversity of QueenslandHerstonAustralia
  3. 3.Royal Brisbane and Women’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Edith Cowan University Western AustraliaJoondalupAustralia
  5. 5.Department of SurgeryMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia