Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Protein Kinases

  • Alice Wong
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6621-3

Definition

Protein kinases play an important role in many cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, or metabolic changes. They function by regulating protein phosphorylation. In so doing, phosphorylated proteins now have an altered conformation and thus an altered activity and localization, or association with other proteins.

Characteristics

There are more than 500 protein kinases representing about 2 % of all genes encoded by the human genome (Manning et al. 2002). Protein kinases phosphorylate approximately 30 % of cellular proteins, and there are as many as 500,000 phosphorylation sites in most of the 23,000 proteins in the human genome. Protein kinases are also found in bacteria as well as in plants and yeasts.

Chemical Activity

Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of phosphate from ATP to a free hydroxyl group on a substrate. All kinases have an ATP-binding site (GXGXXG).

Classification

Kinases show specificity for serine/threonine or tyrosine...

Keywords

Pleckstrin Homology Histidine Phosphorylation Conserve Aspartate Residue Target Protein Kinase Constitutive Kinase Activation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Hank SK, Quinn AM, Hunter T (1988) The protein kinase family: conserved features and deduced phylogeny of the catalytic domains. Science 241:42–52Google Scholar
  2. Johnson SA, Hunter T (2005) Kinomics: methods for deciphering the kinome. Nat Methods 2:17–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Manning G, Whyte DB, Martinez R, Hunter T, Sudrasanam S (2002) The protein kinase complement of the human genome. Science 298:1912–1934CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Noble ME, Endicott JA, Johnson LN (2004) Protein kinase inhibitors: insights into drug design from structure. Science 303:1800–1805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Pawson T (1995) Protein modules and signaling networks. Nature 373:573–580CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Rauch J, Volinsky N, Romano D, Kolch W (2011) The secret life of kinases: functions beyond catalysis. Cell Commun Signal 9:23PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Hydroxyl Group. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1779. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2893Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Serine/Threonine Kinase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3384. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5258Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Tyrosine. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3822. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6078Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Hong KongHong KongChina