Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Protein Kinases

  • Alice Wong
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6621-3


Protein kinases play an important role in many cellular functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, or metabolic changes. They function by regulating protein phosphorylation. In so doing, phosphorylated proteins now have an altered conformation and thus an altered activity and localization, or association with other proteins.


There are more than 500 protein kinases representing about 2 % of all genes encoded by the human genome (Manning et al. 2002). Protein kinases phosphorylate approximately 30 % of cellular proteins, and there are as many as 500,000 phosphorylation sites in most of the 23,000 proteins in the human genome. Protein kinases are also found in bacteria as well as in plants and yeasts.

Chemical Activity

Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of phosphate from ATP to a free hydroxyl group on a substrate. All kinases have an ATP-binding site (GXGXXG).


Kinases show specificity for serine/threonine or tyrosine...


Pleckstrin Homology Histidine Phosphorylation Conserve Aspartate Residue Target Protein Kinase Constitutive Kinase Activation 
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See Also

  1. (2012) Hydroxyl Group. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1779. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2893Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Serine/Threonine Kinase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3384. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5258Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Tyrosine. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3822. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6078Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Hong KongHong KongChina