Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Biomarkers in Detection of Cancer Risk Factors and in Chemoprevention

  • Beatrice L. Pool-Zobel
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_642-2


Biomarkers are parameters that provide information on exposure to xenobiotics and to chemopreventive compounds or on the effects of that exposure in an individual or in a group.


Biomarkers used for the detection of cancer risk factors and in studies of chemoprevention can reveal an overall body load of genotoxins (which should be avoided) or of chemoprotective components (which should be enhanced).


Most forms of cancer are due to somatic alterations (Mutation, Amplification, recombination) in proto-oncogenes, in tumor suppressor genes, or in DNA repair genes. These are acquired in the tumor target tissues during lifetime and accumulate and produce a clonal selection of cells with aggressive and invasive growth properties. Only ∼1 % of all cancers are due to inheritance of these types of genetic alterations. Most other cancers are dietary related, are due to inhalation of tobacco smoke (tobacco carcinogenesis), or may be a consequence of inflammation...


Noninvasive Method Cancer Risk Factor Dietary Intervention Study Tumor Target Tissue hMSH Mutation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutritional ToxicologyFriedrich-Schiller-University of JenaJenaGermany