Renal Cancer Targeted Therapies with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are drugs that interfere with cell communication and growth and may prevent tumor growth.
Until recently, patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were treated with interferon-α, interleukin 2, or combinations thereof. Unfortunately, these agents had limited efficacy and response rates remained low (∼10–15 %). For patients not responding to first-line cytokine therapy, no option for treatment was available. With our increased understanding of the molecular defects that are at the heart of RCC subtypes, new treatment modalities specifically targeting these pathways have been explored. This has led to a revolution in the treatment of RCC. Nevertheless, although improvement is significant, it is still modest and mostly concerns improvement of 2–6 months of progression-free survival.
The most prominent feature of clear-cell RCC (renal carcinoma) is the upregulation of the angiogenic molecule vascular endothelial growth...