Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab


  • Manfred Schartl
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6284-3



Small aquarium fishes of the genus Xiphophorus are known by the common name of platyfish (X. maculatus) and swordtail (X. helleri). Introgressive hybridization results in offspring that develop melanoma according to Mendelian principles. This represents the first animal model, described in 1927, systematically employed for studies of genetic factors in cancer and to show induction of melanoma by ultraviolet light (UV-A).


Genetics of Melanoma Formation

The genetic basis of melanoma formation after introgressive hybridization is explained by the independent segregation of a pigmentation locus (Sd), which contains a dominantly acting oncogene, designated Tu, and a transacting regulatory gene R (also termed Diff, MelSev or R Diff) that suppresses the oncogenic activity of Tu (Fig. 1). Independent segregation is possible because Tu and Rreside on different chromosomes. Crossing and backcrossing...


Focal Adhesion Kinase Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type Pigment Cell Introgressive Hybridization Independent Segregation 
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See Also

  1. (2012) Raf. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3161. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4934Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Ultraviolet Light. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3841. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6101Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physiologische Chemie IBiozentrum, Universität WürzburgWürzburgGermany