Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Virology

  • Paul G. Murray
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6195-2

Definition

Virology addresses the molecular nature of viruses, their genetic content, the pathway by which they enter cells and multiply using the molecular machinery of the host cell, and the mechanisms by which they elicit diseases. Tumor virology is a specialized discipline analyzing the association of particular virus types with cancers in animals and humans.

Characteristics

In 1964 the first human tumor virus, the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), was isolated from tumor samples of a patient with African Burkitt lymphoma. Subsequently, EBV was linked to the development of other forms of cancer. In the 44 years since the discovery of EBV, other human tumor viruses have been identified (Table 1).
Table 1

Major oncogenic viruses

Virus family

Virus

Natural host

Host in which virus is oncogenic

Tumor

Major oncogenic protein(s)

Adenoviridae

Human adenoviruses A, B, D

Man

Hamster, rat

Various

E1A, E1B

Polyomaviridae

Polyoma

Mouse

Mouse

Various

Middle T antigen, large T antigen

SV40

Monkey

Hamster...

Keywords

Hodgkin Lymphoma Burkitt Lymphoma Latent Membrane Protein Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Cullen BR (2006) Viruses and microRNAs. Nat Genet 38(Suppl):S25–S30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Khan G (2006) Epstein-Barr virus, cytokines, and inflammation: a cocktail for the pathogenesis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma? Exp Hematol 34:399–406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Poulin DL, DeCaprio JA (2006) Is there a role for SV40 in human cancer? J Clin Oncol 24:4356–4365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Stanley MA (2006) Human papillomavirus vaccines. Rev Med Virol 16:139–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Tao Q, Young LS, Woodman CB et al (2006) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and its associated human cancers–genetics, epigenetics, pathobiology and novel therapeutics. Front Biosci 11:2672–2713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Humanized antibodies. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1760. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2863Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Monoclonal antibody. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2367. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6842Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Monoclonal antibody therapy. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 2367–2368. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3823Google Scholar
  4. (2012) P53. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2747. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4331Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CRUK Institute for Cancer Studies, Molecular Pharmacology, Medical SchoolUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK