Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab


  • Paul G. Murray
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6195-2


Virology addresses the molecular nature of viruses, their genetic content, the pathway by which they enter cells and multiply using the molecular machinery of the host cell, and the mechanisms by which they elicit diseases. Tumor virology is a specialized discipline analyzing the association of particular virus types with cancers in animals and humans.


In 1964 the first human tumor virus, the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), was isolated from tumor samples of a patient with African Burkitt lymphoma. Subsequently, EBV was linked to the development of other forms of cancer. In the 44 years since the discovery of EBV, other human tumor viruses have been identified (Table 1).
Table 1

Major oncogenic viruses

Virus family


Natural host

Host in which virus is oncogenic


Major oncogenic protein(s)


Human adenoviruses A, B, D


Hamster, rat


E1A, E1B






Middle T antigen, large T antigen





Hodgkin Lymphoma Burkitt Lymphoma Latent Membrane Protein Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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See Also

  1. (2012) Humanized antibodies. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1760. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2863Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Monoclonal antibody. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2367. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6842Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Monoclonal antibody therapy. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 2367–2368. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3823Google Scholar
  4. (2012) P53. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2747. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4331Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CRUK Institute for Cancer Studies, Molecular Pharmacology, Medical SchoolUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK