Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subgroup that accounts for 10–20 % of all breast carcinomas. TNBC is characterized by the absence of three receptors: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2).
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing a number of distinct biological entities associated with specific morphological and clinical behavior. Technological developments have allowed to sequence the complete genome of breast cancer and compared a large number of tumor samples. From these, studies have emerged five subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like, and claudin-low.
TNBC is sometime referred to as basal-like tumors, as a majority of basal-like cancers are TNBC and approximately 80 % of TNBC are also basal-like breast cancers. TNBC is also associated with younger patients and high-grade...