Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Thyroid Carcinogenesis

  • Hartmut M. Rabes
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_5806-2

Definition

Malignant transformation of thyroid follicle-lining epithelial cells and progression to a clinically manifest thyroid carcinoma. Thyrocytes, embryologically derived from the primitive pharynx, produce thyroid hormones and are thus involved in the regulation of metabolic pathways. Malignant transformation of these cells gives rise to various types of differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas. In contrast, medullary carcinomas (5–15 % of all thyroid carcinomas) originate from calcitonin-producing neural crest-derived C cells and form a separate entity.

Characteristics

The main groups of nonmedullary epithelial thyroid carcinomas include:
  • Follicular carcinoma (<20 % of all thyroid carcinomas), composed of closely packed follicles lined by cuboidal or columnar cells with dark-staining round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Capsular and/or vascular invasion, missing in follicular adenoma, is crucial for diagnosis of follicular carcinoma. The tumor spreads via the...

Keywords

Thyroid Carcinoma Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Papillary Carcinoma Follicular Carcinoma Follicular Adenoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Pierotti MA, Bongarzone I, Borrello MG et al (1996) Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of carcinomas arising from the thyroid epithelial follicular cells. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 16:1–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Rabes HM (2001) Gene rearrangements in the radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis. Med Pediatr Oncol 36:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Rabes HM, Klugbauer S (1998) Molecular genetics of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas after irradiation: high prevalence of RET rearrangement. Recent Result Cancer Res 154:248–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Rabes HM, Demidchick EP, Sidorow JD et al (2000) Pattern of radiation-induced RET and NTRK1 rearrangements in 191 post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas: biological, phenotypic, and clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res 6:1093–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ron E, Lubin J, Shore RE et al (1995) Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat Res 141:259–277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Schlumberger MJ (1998) Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. N Engl J Med 338:297–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) GSP. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1609. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2528Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Loss of Heterozygosity. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 2075-2076. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3415Google Scholar
  3. (2012) TSH Receptor. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 3786–3787. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6002Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PathologyUniversity of MunichMunichGermany