Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  • Ching-Hon Pui
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_57-5

Synonyms

ALL

Definition

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease that arises from several cooperative genetic mutations in a single B- or T-lymphoid progenitor, leading to altered blast cell proliferation, survival, and maturation and eventually to the lethal accumulation of leukemic cells. Although cases can be subclassified further according to the multiple stages of T- or B-cell maturation, these distinctions are not therapeutically useful.

Characteristics

ALL accounts for about 12 % of all childhood and adult leukemias diagnosed in developed countries and for 60 % of those diagnosed in persons younger than 20 years. It is the most common cancer in children (25 % of all cases) and has a peak incidence in patients between the ages of 2 and 5 years, with a second, smaller peak in the elderly.

The factors predisposing children and adults to ALL remain largely unknown. Children with certain constitutional genetic abnormalities (e.g., trisomy 21) are at increased risk of...

Keywords

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Minimal Residual Disease Remission Induction Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Pui C-H, Campana D, Pei D et al (2009) Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation. N Engl J Med 360:2730–27412CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Pui C-H, Pei D, Coustan-Smith E et al (2015a) Clinical utility of sequential minimal residual disease measurements in the context of risk-directed therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a prospective study. Lancet Oncol 16:465–474CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Pui C-H, Yang JJ, Hunger SP et al (2015b) Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: progress through collaboration. J Clin Oncol 33:2938–2948CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Roberts KG, Mullighan CG (2015) Genomics in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: insights and treatment implications. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 12:344–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Zhang J, Walsh MF, Wu G et al (2015) Germline mutations in predisposition genes in pediatric cancer. N Engl J Med 373:2336–2346CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Dasatinib. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1060. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1518Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Extramedullary. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1366. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2074Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Karyotype. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1941. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3200Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Remission. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3225. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5020Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Sanctuary site. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3334. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5154Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA