Surgical Trauma and Cancer Recurrence
Surgical trauma occurs after every surgical procedure by using traumatic tools, gauzes, and by rubbing the tissue. This causes an inflammatory response during which loads of cytokines and growth factors are produced. These factors will create an outstanding environment where tumor cells can adhere and flourish into a tumor lesion. Understanding the specific mechanism of tumor cell adhesion can lead to develop specific tools to prevent local and distant recurrence in the future.
The process of cancer metastasis could be compared to an exhausting obstacle race, during which the tumor cell has to pass a series of sequential interrelated steps to become a clinically relevant lesion. In distant metastasis, the tumor cell must succeed in invasion, embolization, and survival in the circulation and adhere to a distant capillary endothelium, followed by extravasation and multiplication in another organ. Locoregional tumor recurrence after intra-abdominal seeding or...